Wetenschappelijk onderzoek over candida

Het protocol voor de behandeling een candida infectie is op basis van wetenschappelijke publicaties ontwikkeld. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van de National Library of Medicine (PubMed). Daar waar mogelijk werden studies die opgezet zijn volgens het “placebo controlled cross-over” principe gebruikt. Andere vormen die vaak werden gebruik zijn reviews en epidemiologisch onderzoek. Publicaties uit bladen als The Lancet, American Journal of Cardiology, The New England Journal of Medicine hadden de voorkeur

Candida albicans veroorzaakt geen darmklachten

National Library of Medicine (PubMed)

Een darmflora dysbiose ontstaat sneller dan u denkt

    REWIEW
  1. Edlund C1, Nord CE. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000 Sep;46 Suppl 1:41-8; discussion 63-5. Effect on the human normal microflora of oral antibiotics for treatment of urinary tract infections
    When antimicrobial agents are prescribed for the treatment of UTIs, not only the antimicrobial spectrum of the agent but also the potential ecological disturbances, including the risk of emergence of resistant strains, should be considered.
  2. REVIEW
  3. Nord CE. Vet Microbiol. 1993 Jun;35(3-4):193-7. The effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecology of the human intestinal microflora
    Administration of these agents may seriously disturb the balance of the normal intestinal microflora. This disturbance can cause bacterial overgrowth and emergence of resistant microorganisms which may lead to serious infections and also encourage transfer of resistance factors among bacteria.[Abstract]
  4. CLINICAL
  5. Hemmerling A, Harrison W, Schroeder A, Park J, Korn A, Shiboski S, Foster-Rosales A, Cohen CR. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Dec;37(12):745-50. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181e50026. Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginos
    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection caused by a lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens that frequently recurs following antibiotic treatment. LACTIN-V colonized well, and was safe and acceptable in women treated for BV.[Abstract]
  6. REVIEW
  7. Noverr MC1, Huffnagle GB. Trends Microbiol. 2004 Dec;12(12):562-8. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut?
    Perturbations in the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition that occur as a result of antibiotics and diet in “westernized” countries are strongly associated with allergies and asthma (“hygiene hypothesis”). The microbiota (“microflora”) plays a crucial role in the development of mucosal tolerance, including the airways. Significant attention has been focused on the role of the microbiota in GI development, immune adaptation and initiation of GI inflammatory diseases. This review covers the post-developmental functions that the microbiota plays in regulating immunological tolerance to allergen exposure outside the GI tract and proposes the question: is the microbiota a major regulator of the immune system?[Article]
  8. REVIEW
  9. Sobel JD Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Aug 1;152(7 Pt 2):924-35. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis
    Evidence is presented of an increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the cause of which is unclear, but this increase is probably the result of multiple factors including widespread abuse of antibiotics, possibly oral contraceptives, and most important inadequate vaginal therapy.[Abstract]
  10. META
  11. Zhang J1, Thomas AG, Leybovich E. Am J Public Health. 1997 Jul;87(7):1207-11. Vaginal douching and adverse health effects: a meta-analysis
    Current literature suggests that frequent douching increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and, possibly, cervical cancer.[Article]
  12. REVIEW
  13. Hickey RJ1, Zhou X, Pierson JD, Ravel J, Forney LJ. Transl Res. 2012 Oct;160(4):267-82. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2012.02.008. Understanding vaginal microbiome complexity from an ecological perspective
    Moreover, there are few unifying theories to explain the ecological dynamics of vaginal ecosystems as they respond to disturbances caused by menses and human activities such as intercourse, douching, and other habits and practices.[Article]
  14. REVIEW
  15. Cottrell BH. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2010 Mar-Apr;35(2):102-7; quiz 108-9. doi: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e3181cae9da. An updated review of of evidence to discourage douching
    Healthcare providers may not be aware of the mounting evidence of negative health outcomes associated with the practice of douching. At every opportunity, healthcare providers should ask women whether they douche and inquire about vaginal douching practices and beliefs associated with the practice. Douching should be discouraged because it places women at risk for multiple health problems.[Abstract]
  16. REVIEW
  17. Martino JL1, Vermund SH. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24(2):109-24. Vaginal douching: evidence for risks or benefits to women’s health
    have concluded that douching is harmful and should be discouraged because of its association with pelvic inflammatory disease.[Article]
  18. Een steeds terugkerende vaginale infectie kan duiden op een darmflora dysbiose

    Candida komt bij “gezonde” patiënten niet in het bloed terecht

    Is Candida een onschuldige gist of een gevaarlijke schimmel?

    OTHER
  19. Cascioli CF1, Balletta M, Donadio P, Liguori M. Minerva Med. 1990 Jun;81(6):481-3. Therapy of systemic candidiasis
    Candida Albicans may be found in yeast form in the intestinal tract, vagina, skin and mucous membranes of apparently healthy individuals. The organism is ubiquitous, and systemic disease occurs almost exclusively in individuals whose resistance to infections is impaired.[Abstract]
  20. REVIEW
  21. Kim J1, Sudbery P. J Microbiol. 2011 Apr;49(2):171-7. doi: 10.1007/s12275-011-1064-7. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen.
    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen (Beck-Sague and Jarvis, 1993). It is normally a harmless commensal organism. However, it is a opportunistic pathogen for some immunologically weak and immunocompromised people.[Abstract]
  22. OTHER
  23. Kumamoto CA1, Pierce JV. Trends Microbiol. 2011 Jun;19(6):263-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2011.01.009. Immunosensing during colonization by Candida albicans: does it take a village to colonize the intestine?
    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a component of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, is a frequent colonizer of humans. Is C. albicans capable of sensing the immune status of its host, a process we term immunosensing.[Article]
  24. OTHER
  25. Zelante T1, Iannitti RG, De Luca A, Arroyo J, Blanco N, Servillo G, Sanglard D, Reichard U, Palmer GE, Latgè JP, Puccetti P, Romani L. Nat Commun. 2012 Feb 21;3:683. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1685. Sensing of mammalian IL-17A regulates fungal adaptation and virulence
    Infections by opportunistic fungi have traditionally been viewed as the gross result of a pathogenic automatism, which makes a weakened host more vulnerable to microbial insults. However, fungal sensing of a host’s immune environment might render this process more elaborate than previously appreciated.[Abstract]
  26. REVIEW
  27. Sudbery PE. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Aug 16;9(10):737-48. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2636. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae
    The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage.[Abstract]
  28. REVIEW
  29. Kumamoto CA1, Vinces MD. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Nov;7(11):1546-54. Contributions of hyphae and hypha-co-regulated genes to Candida albicans virulence
    The fascinating ability of Candida albicans to undergo dramatic changes in cellular morphology has invited speculation that this plasticity in form contributes to the virulence of the organism. Molecular genetic analyses have confirmed this hypothesis and further demonstrated that genes that govern cellular morphology are co-regulated with genes encoding conventional virulence factors such as proteases and adhesins. The transcriptional regulatory networks of C. albicans thus ensure that hyphae are produced concomitantly with virulence factors, resulting in cells that are adapted for invading the tissues of an immunocompromised host. Hyphae are able to exert mechanical force, aiding penetration of epithelial surfaces, and hyphae damage endothelial cells, aiding escape of C. albicans from the host bloodstream into deeper tissue. Hyphal morphogenesis is thus an integral part of the overall virulence strategy of C. albicans.[Abstract]
  30. OTHER
  31. CDC: Symptoms of Invasive Candidiasis
    The symptoms of invasive candidiasis are not specific. Fever and chills that do not improve after antibiotic therapy are the most common symptoms. If the infection spreads to other organs or parts of the body such as kidneys, liver, bones, muscles, joints, spleen, or eyes, additional symptoms may develop, which vary depending on the site of infection. If the infection does not respond to treatment, the patient’s organs may stop working.[Article]
  32. OTHER
  33. Pappas PG1, Kauffman CA, Andes D, Benjamin DK Jr, Calandra TF, Edwards JE Jr, Filler SG, Fisher JF, Kullberg BJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Reboli AC, Rex JH, Walsh TJ, Sobel JD; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 1;48(5):503-35. doi: 10.1086/596757. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Guidelines for the management of patients with invasive candidiasis and mucosal candidiasis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.[Article]
  34. Veroorzaakt Candida echt een infectie?

    REVIEW
  35. Leone V1, Chang EB, Devkota S. J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;48(3):315-21. doi: 10.1007/s00535-013-0777-2. Diet, microbes, and host genetics: the perfect storm in inflammatory bowel diseases
    One major environmental factor, dietary intake, has shifted to a high fat, high carbohydrate Western-type diet in developing nations, nearly in direct correlation with the increasing incidence of IBD. Recent evidence suggests that specific changes in dietary intake have led to a shift in the composite human gut microbiota, resulting in the emergence of pathobionts that can thrive under specific conditions.[Article]
  36. REVIEW
  37. Geuking MB, Köller Y, Rupp S, McCoy KD. Gut Microbes. 2014 May 1;5(3):411-418. The interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system
    The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels to achieve a mutualistic relationship. Host-microbial homeostasis involves appropriate immune regulation within the gut mucosa to maintain a healthy gut while preventing uncontrolled immune responses against the beneficial commensal microbiota potentially leading to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).[Article]
  38. Damman CJ, Miller SI, Surawicz CM, Zisman TL Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1452-9. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.93. The microbiome and inflammatory bowel disease: is there a therapeutic role for fecal microbiota transplantation?
    One hypothesis for the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is that an altered or pathogenic microbiota causes inflammation in a genetically susceptible individual. Understanding the microbiota’s role in the pathogenesis of the disease could lead to new IBD treatments aimed at shifting the bacteria in the gut back to eubiosis. Probiotics have some efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), but our current repertoire is limited in potency. Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) is an emerging treatment for several gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders.[Abstract]
  39. REVIEW
  40. Sze MA1, Hogg JC2, Sin DD1. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014 Feb 21;9:229-38. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S38932. eCollection 2014. Bacterial microbiome of lungs in COPD
    COPD is in part mediated by dysregulated immune responses to cigarette smoke and other environmental insults. Although traditionally the lung has been viewed as a sterile organ, by using highly sensitive genomic techniques, recent reports have identified diverse bacterial communities in the human lung that may change in COPD. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the lung microbiota in COPD and its potential implications for pathogenesis of the disease.[Article]
  41. Holistische behandeling van een “candida infectie”

    Wat doet de huisarts hier aan

    OTHER
  42. NHG-Standaard Dermatomycosen
    De NHG-Standaard Dermatomycosen geeft richtlijnen voor diagnostiek en beleid bij infecties van huid, haren en nagels door schimmels en gisten.[Article]
  43. OTHER
  44. NHG-Standaard Fluor vaginalis
    De NHG-Standaard Fluor vaginalis geeft richtlijnen voor de diagnostiek en het beleid bij vrouwen in de reproductieve levensfase met klachten van fluor vaginalis, vaginale jeuk of irritatie.[Article]
  45. REVIEW
  46. Ciorba MA. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Sep;10(9):960-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2012.03.024.  A gastroenterologist’s guide to probiotics
    The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotic therapy and literature-based recommendations.[Article]
  47. OTHER
  48. Noverr MC1, Huffnagle GB Infect Immun. 2004 Nov;72(11):6206-10. Regulation of Candida albicans morphogenesis by fatty acid metabolites
    Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. C. albicans. Overall, these results indicate that fatty acid metabolites and fatty acid pathways can up-regulate and down-regulate germination in C. albicans. [Article]

  49. .[Abstract]

    The human Microbiome Project

    CLINICAL
  1. Aagaard K1, Petrosino J, Keitel W, Watson M, Katancik J, Garcia N, Patel S, Cutting M, Madden T, Hamilton H, Harris E, Gevers D, Simone G, McInnes P, Versalovic J. FASEB J. 2013 Mar;27(3):1012-22. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-220806. The Human Microbiome Project strategy for comprehensive sampling of the human microbiome and why it matters
    The Human Microbiome Project used rigorous good clinical practice standards to complete comprehensive body site sampling in healthy 18- to 40-yr-old adults, creating an unparalleled reference set of microbiome specimens. [Article]
  2. OTHER
  3. NIH HMP Working Group, Peterson J, Garges S, Giovanni M, McInnes P, Wang L, Schloss JA, Bonazzi V, McEwen JE, Wetterstrand KA, Deal C, Baker CC, Di Francesco V, Howcroft TK, Karp RW, Lunsford RD, Wellington CR, Belachew T, Wright M, Giblin C, David H, Mills M, Salomon R, Mullins C, Akolkar B, Begg L,Davis C, Grandison L, Humble M, Khalsa J, Little AR, Peavy H, Pontzer C, Portnoy M, Sayre MH, Starke-Reed P, Zakhari S, Read J, Watson B, Guyer M. Genome Res. 2009 Dec;19(12):2317-23. doi: 10.1101/gr.096651.109.  The NIH Human Microbiome Project.
    The ultimate objective of the HMP is to demonstrate that there are opportunities to improve human health through monitoring or manipulation of the human microbiome.[Article]
  4. OTHER
  5. Gevers D1, Knight R, Petrosino JF, Huang K, McGuire AL, Birren BW, Nelson KE, White O, Methé BA, Huttenhower C. PLoS Biol. 2012;10(8):e1001377. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001377. The Human Microbiome Project: a community resource for the healthy human microbiome
    The HMP was designed in part to address a key question about our microbial selves: do all humans have an identifiable “core” microbiome of shared components comparable to our shared genome? Several definitions of “core” have been proposed, recently unified in one conceptual framework.[Article]
  6. OTHER
  7. Turnbaugh PJ1, Ley RE, Hamady M, Fraser-Liggett CM, Knight R, Gordon JI. Nature. 2007 Oct 18;449(7164):804-10. The human microbiome project
    A strategy to understand the microbial components of the human genetic and metabolic landscape and how they contribute to normal physiology and predisposition to disease.[Article]

Oorzaak en gevolg candida darminfectie

    Onschadelijk

    OTHER
  1. Neville BA1, d’Enfert C2, Bougnoux ME3. FEMS Yeast Res. 2015 Nov;15(7). pii: fov081. doi: 10.1093/femsyr/fov081. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract
    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form.[Abstract]
  2. OTHER
  3. Cascioli CF1, Balletta M, Donadio P, Liguori M. Minerva Med. 1990 Jun;81(6):481-3. Therapy of systemic candidiasis
    Candida Albicans may be found in yeast form in the intestinal tract, vagina, skin and mucous membranes of apparently healthy individuals. The organism is ubiquitous, and systemic disease occurs almost exclusively in individuals whose resistance to infections is impaired.[Abstract]
  4. opportunistisch

    REVIEW
  5. Kim J1, Sudbery P. J Microbiol. 2011 Apr;49(2):171-7. doi: 10.1007/s12275-011-1064-7. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen.
    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen (Beck-Sague and Jarvis, 1993). It is normally a harmless commensal organism. However, it is a opportunistic pathogen for some immunologically weak and immunocompromised people.[Abstract]
  6. OTHER
  7. Kumamoto CA1, Pierce JV. Trends Microbiol. 2011 Jun;19(6):263-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2011.01.009. Immunosensing during colonization by Candida albicans: does it take a village to colonize the intestine?
    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a component of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, is a frequent colonizer of humans. Is C. albicans capable of sensing the immune status of its host, a process we term immunosensing.[Article]
  8. Darmflora dysbiose veroorzaakt overgroei candida

    REVIEW
  9. Romani L1, Zelante T, Palmieri M, Napolioni V, Picciolini M, Velardi A, Aversa F, Puccetti P. Semin Immunopathol. 2015 Mar;37(2):163-71. doi: 10.1007/s00281-014-0464-2. The cross-talk between opportunistic fungi and the mammalian host via microbiota’s metabolism
    Indeed, microbial dysbiosis predisposes to a variety of chronic fungal infections and diseases at local and distant site.[Abstract]
  10. Ohshima T1, Kojima Y1, Seneviratne CJ2, Maeda N1. Front Microbiol. 2016 Jan 25;7:10. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00010. eCollection 2016. Therapeutic Application of Synbiotics, a Fusion of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and Biogenics as a New Concept for Oral Candida Infections: A Mini Review
    Although Candida resides as a member of the oral indigenous microbiota in symbiosis, some circumstances may cause microbial imbalance leading to dysbiosis and resultant oral candidiasis.[Article]
  11. Castro A1, González M2, Tarín JJ3, Cano A4. Nutr Hosp. 2015 Feb 7;31 Suppl 1:26-30. doi: 10.3305/nh.2015.31.sup1.8704. Role of probiotics in Obstetrics and Gynecology
    The human microbiota is estimated to be 2.5-3.0 kg.[Abstract]

  12. .[Abstract]

  13. .[Abstract]

  14. .[Abstract]

  15. .[Abstract]

  16. .[Abstract]

Candida is een onschuldige toeschouwer

  • Relloso M1, Aragoneses-Fenoll L, Lasarte S, Bourgeois C, Romera G, Kuchler K, Corbí AL, Muñoz-Fernández MA, Nombela C, Rodríguez-Fernández JL, Diez-Orejas R. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Jan;91(1):159-65. doi: 10.1189/jlb.1110645. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans
    Candida albicans is a commensal opportunistic pathogen that is also a member of gastrointestinal and reproductive tract microbiota.[Article]
  • Oestrogeen

    OTHER
  • Mendling W1, Brasch J; German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics; Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics; German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists; German Speaking Mycological Society. Mycoses. 2012 Jul;55 Suppl 3:1-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2012.02185.x. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics, the German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists and the German Speaking Mycological Society
    Candida (C.) species colonize the estrogenized vagina in at least 20% of all women. This statistic rises to 30% in late pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients. The most often occurring species is Candida albicans.[Abstract]
  • OTHER
  • Relloso M1, Aragoneses-Fenoll L, Lasarte S, Bourgeois C, Romera G, Kuchler K, Corbí AL, Muñoz-Fernández MA, Nombela C, Rodríguez-Fernández JL, Diez-Orejas R. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Jan;91(1):159-65. doi: 10.1189/jlb.1110645. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans
    Exogenous factors, such as oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and estradiol, may affect susceptibility to Candida infection, although the mechanisms involved in this process have not been elucidated.[Article]
  • Oestrogeen

    OTHER
  • Mendling W1, Brasch J; German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics; Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics; German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists; German Speaking Mycological Society. Mycoses. 2012 Jul;55 Suppl 3:1-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2012.02185.x. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics, the German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists and the German Speaking Mycological Society
    Candida (C.) species colonize the estrogenized vagina in at least 20% of all women. This statistic rises to 30% in late pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients. The most often occurring species is Candida albicans.[Abstract]
  • OTHER
  • Relloso M1, Aragoneses-Fenoll L, Lasarte S, Bourgeois C, Romera G, Kuchler K, Corbí AL, Muñoz-Fernández MA, Nombela C, Rodríguez-Fernández JL, Diez-Orejas R. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Jan;91(1):159-65. doi: 10.1189/jlb.1110645. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans
    Candida albicans is a commensal opportunistic pathogen that is also a member of gastrointestinal and reproductive tract microbiota. Exogenous factors, such as oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and estradiol, may affect susceptibility to Candida infection, although the mechanisms involved in this process have not been elucidated.[Article]
  • Vaginale infectie

      REVIEW
    1. Mazne?kova V. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2003;42 Suppl 2:30-4. Vaginal candidiasis–treatment protocols using miconazole and fluconazole
      The incidence of fungal infections is growing in the last 20 years. The epidemiological studies show that 45% of all vaginal infections are caused by Candida albicans or other Candida species. 7 out of 10 women suffer from yeast infection at least once in a lifetime and 4 out of 10 have multiple recurrences.[Abstract]
    2. OTHER
    3. Adad SJ1, de Lima RV, Sawan ZT, Silva ML, de Souza MA, Saldanha JC, Falco VA, da Cunha AH, Murta EF. Sao Paulo Med J. 2001 Nov 1;119(6):200-5. Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis in cervical-vaginal smears in four different decades
      In 1968 infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida sp were diagnosed in 10% and 0.5% of the cytology tests and in 1978, 5.1% and 17.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Infection by Gardnerella vaginalis could only be evaluated in the latter two decades. In 1988, 19.8% of the women had positive tests for Gardnerella vaginalis, which was the most frequent agent in that year, diminishing in the subsequent decade to 15.9% (P < 0.0001). Candidiasis was the most frequent infection in 1998, detected in 22.5% of the tests (P < 0.0001). [Abstract]
    4. REVIEW
    5. Kim J1, Sudbery P. J Microbiol. 2011 Apr;49(2):171-7. doi: 10.1007/s12275-011-1064-7. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen.
      Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen (Beck-Sague and Jarvis, 1993). It is normally a harmless commensal organism. However, it is a opportunistic pathogen for some immunologically weak and immunocompromised people. It is responsible for painful mucosal infections such as the vaginitis in women and oral-pharangeal thrush in AIDS patients. In certain groups of vulnerable patients it causes severe, life-threatening bloodstream infections and it causes severe, life-threatening bloodstream infections and subsequent infections in the internal organs. There are various fascinating features of the C. albicans life cycle and biology that have made the pathogen the subject of extensive research, including its ability to grow in unicellular yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal forms (Fig. 1A); its ability to switch between different but stable phenotypic states.[Abstract]
    6. Martin DH. Am J Med Sci. 2012 Jan;343(1):2-9. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31823ea228. The microbiota of the vagina and its influence on women’s health and disease
      Overview of the vaginal microbiota table 1: Relative bacterial species composition (%) based on DNA extracted from vaginal specimens clinically diagnosed as normal (Nuget score of 0 to 3), intermediate (4 to 6), or BV (7 to 10). [Article]
    7. REVIEW
    8. Yang YL J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2003 Dec;36(4):223-8. Virulence factors of Candida species
      Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen, which colonizes at several anatomically distinct sites including skin, oral, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. How harmless commensal C. albicans become a human pathogen when opportunity comes is not clear. This review will focus on the molecular dissection of virulence factors of C. albicans, including adhesion, proteinases secretion, hyphal formation, and phenotypic switching. This review will also describe briefly the virulence factors in non-albicans Candida spp.[Abstract]
    9. OTHER
    10. Shipitsyna E1, Roos A, Datcu R, Hallén A, Fredlund H, Jensen JS, Engstrand L, Unemo M. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 9;8(4):e60670. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060670. Print 2013. Composition of the vaginal microbiota in women of reproductive age–sensitive and specific molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is possible?
      Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder, characterized by depletion of the normal lactobacillus-dominant microbiota and overgrowth of commensal anaerobic bacteria.[Article]
    11. RCT
    12. Vujic G1, Jajac Knez A, Despot Stefanovic V, Kuzmic Vrbanovic V. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013 May;168(1):75-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.031. Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
      Oral probiotics could be an alternative, side effect-free treatment for one of the most common indications in gynecology, combining the good aspects of both metronidazole and vaginal capsules.[Abstract]

    13. .[Abstract]

    Mogelijk oorzaken vaginale infectie

      Schadelijke invloeden op de microbiota

      Het Westerse dieet

      REVIEW
    1. Leone V1, Chang EB, Devkota S. J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;48(3):315-21. doi: 10.1007/s00535-013-0777-2. Diet, microbes, and host genetics: the perfect storm in inflammatory bowel diseases
      One major environmental factor, dietary intake, has shifted to a high fat, high carbohydrate Western-type diet in developing nations, nearly in direct correlation with the increasing incidence of IBD. Recent evidence suggests that specific changes in dietary intake have led to a shift in the composite human gut microbiota, resulting in the emergence of pathobionts that can thrive under specific conditions.[Article]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Sonnenburg ED1, Sonnenburg JL2. Cell Metab. 2014 Aug 20. pii: S1550-4131(14)00311-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.003. Starving our Microbial Self: The Deleterious Consequences of a Diet Deficient in Microbiota-Accessible Carbohydrates
      The gut microbiota of a healthy person may not be equivalent to a healthy microbiota. It is possible that the Western microbiota is actually dysbiotic and predisposes individuals to a variety of diseases. The Western lifestyle, which includes a diet low in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), has selected for a microbiota with altered membership and functionality compared to those of groups living traditional lifestyles.[Abstract]
    4. REVIEW
    5. Hörmannsperger G1, Clavel T, Haller D. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jun;129(6):1452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.12.993 Gut matters: microbe-host interactions in allergic diseases
      The mammalian barrier and immune functions warrant simultaneous protection of the host against deleterious infections, as well as tolerance toward harmless commensals. Because these pivotal host functions evolved under high microbial pressure, they obviously depend on a complex network of microbe-host interactions. The rapid spread of immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and allergies, in westernized countries is thus thought to be due to environmentally mediated disturbances of this microbe-host interaction network.[Abstract]
    6. REVIEW
    7. Thorburn AN1, Macia L1, Mackay CR2. Immunity. 2014 Jun 19;40(6):833-42. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.05.014. Diet, metabolites, and “western-lifestyle” inflammatory diseases
      We propose that insufficient exposure to dietary and bacterial metabolites might underlie the development of inflammatory disorders in Western countries. This review highlights what is currently known about diet, metabolites, and their associated immune pathways in relation to the development of inflammatory disease.[Abstract]
    8. REVIEW
    9. Huang EY1, Devkota S, Moscoso D, Chang EB, Leone VA. Microbes Infect. 2013 Nov;15(12):765-74. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2013.07.004. The role of diet in triggering human inflammatory disorders in the modern age
      Previously uncommon human inflammatory disorders are emerging with alarming frequency, possibly triggered by environmental factors introduced through Westernization. This review highlights how Western diets heighten the inflammatory state promoting development of disease.[Abstract]
    10. Antibioticumgebruik

      CLINICAL
    11. Hemmerling A1, Harrison W, Schroeder A, Park J, Korn A, Shiboski S, Foster-Rosales A, Cohen CR. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Dec;37(12):745-50. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181e50026. Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis
      Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection caused by a lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens that frequently recurs following antibiotic treatment.[Abstract]
    12. REVIEW
    13. Sobel JD Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Aug 1;152(7 Pt 2):924-35. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis
      Evidence is presented of an increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the cause of which is unclear, but this increase is probably the result of multiple factors including widespread abuse of antibiotics, possibly oral contraceptives, and most important inadequate vaginal therapy.[Abstract]
    14. Maagzuurremmers

      META
    15. Janarthanan S1, Ditah I, Adler DG, Ehrinpreis MN. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;107(7):1001-10. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.179. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and proton pump inhibitor therapy: a meta-analysis
      There is sufficient evidence to suggest that PPIs increase the incidence of CDAD. Our meta-analysis shows a 65% increase in the incidence of CDAD among PPI users.[Abstract]
    16. META
    17. Kwok CS1, Arthur AK, Anibueze CI, Singh S, Cavallazzi R, Loke YK. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;107(7):1011-9. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.108. Risk of Clostridium difficile infection with acid suppressing drugs and antibiotics: meta-analysis
      Despite the substantial statistical and clinical heterogeneity, our findings indicate a probable association between PPI use and incident and recurrent CDI. This risk is further increased by concomitant use of antibiotics and PPI, whereas H2RAs may be less harmful.[Abstract]
    18. Andere mogelijke oorzaken

      Zwangerschap

      REVIEW
    19. Margariti PA1, Astorri AL, Mastromarino C, Morace G. Recenti Prog Med. 1997 Oct;88(10):479-84. Mycotic vulvovaginitis
      Vulvovaginitis is the most common clinical manifestation of fungal infections causing human mycoses; the incidence occurs in 10% of women, during pregnancy the incidence achieves 30% of cases. Candida albicans has resulted to be the most commonly isolated agent in patients with fungemia. In fact, Candida appears to be the species recovered in as many as 90% of cases.[Abstract]
    20. OTHER
    21. Leli C1, Mencacci A, Meucci M, Bietolini C, Vitali M, Farinelli S, D’ Alò F, Bombaci JC, Perito S, Bistoni F. Minerva Ginecol. 2013 Jun;65(3):303-9. Association of pregnancy and Candida vaginal colonization in women with or without symptoms of vulvovaginitis
      Pregnancy seems to be independently associated to Candida spp. asymptomatic vaginal infection. Given that candidiasis has been associated with possible delivery complications, these results suggest to screen for Candida spp. vaginal colonization asymptomatic women during pregnancy.[Abstract]
    22. OTHER
    23. García Heredia M1, García SD, Copolillo EF, Cora Eliseth M, Barata AD, Vay CA, de Torres RA, Tiraboschi N, Famiglietti AM. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2006 Jan-Mar;38(1):9-12. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women. Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents
      Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast.[Abstract]
    24. Preterm birth

      META
    25. Brocklehurst P1, Gordon A, Heatley E, Milan SJ. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;1:CD000262. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000262.pub4. Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy
      Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcomes and, in particular, preterm birth (PTB).[Abstract]
    26. RCT
    27. Roberts CL1, Rickard K, Kotsiou G, Morris JM. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011 Mar 11;11:18. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-18. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial
      Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. [Article]
    28. Vaginaal douchen

      META
    29. Zhang J1, Thomas AG, Leybovich E. Am J Public Health. 1997 Jul;87(7):1207-11. Vaginal douching and adverse health effects: a meta-analysis
      Current literature suggests that frequent douching increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and, possibly, cervical cancer.[Article]
    30. REVIEW
    31. Cottrell BH. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2010 Mar-Apr;35(2):102-7; quiz 108-9. doi: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e3181cae9da. An updated review of of evidence to discourage douching
      Healthcare providers may not be aware of the mounting evidence of negative health outcomes associated with the practice of douching. At every opportunity, healthcare providers should ask women whether they douche and inquire about vaginal douching practices and beliefs associated with the practice. Douching should be discouraged because it places women at risk for multiple health problems.[Abstract]
    32. REVIEW
    33. Martino JL1, Vermund SH. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24(2):109-24. Vaginal douching: evidence for risks or benefits to women’s health
      have concluded that douching is harmful and should be discouraged because of its association with pelvic inflammatory disease.[Article]
    34. OTHER
    35. Brown JM1, Hess KL, Brown S, Murphy C, Waldman AL, Hezareh M. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Apr;121(4):773-80. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31828786f8. Intravaginal practices and risk of bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis infection among a cohort of women in the United States
      We enrolled 141 women. Two thirds (66%) reported an intravaginal practice over the past month; 49% reported insertion of an intravaginal product (other than tampons) and 45% reported intravaginal washing. Intravaginal insertion of over-the-counter products is common among women in the United States and is associated with increased risk of bacterial vaginosis. The context, motivations for, and effects of intravaginal products and practices on vaginal health are of concern and warrant further study. [Abstract]
    36. Geslachtsgemeenschap

      REVIEW
    37. Leppäluoto PA. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011 Dec;90(12):1302-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01279.x. Bacterial vaginosis: what is physiological in vaginal bacteriology? An update and opinion
      Bacterial vaginosis, characterized by low vaginal acidity (elevated pH) and replacement of vaginal Lactobacillus by Gardnerella vaginalis flora, could be caused by unprotected intercourse when a low pH changes through the neutralizing power of male ejaculate.[Abstract]
    38. OTHER
    39. Li XD1, Wang CC, Zhang XJ, Gao GP, Tong F, Li X, Hou S, Sun L, Sun YH. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Sep;33(9):1525-32. doi: 10.1007/s10096-014-2103-1. Risk factors for bacterial vaginosis: results from a cross-sectional study having a sample of 53,652 women
      A total of 53,286 married women aged 18-49 years were included in this analysis. The prevalence of BV was 11.99 % (6,391/53,286). Risk factors for BV included the minority nationality, women’s lower education levels, husband’s elder age, over 35 days of menstrual cycle, less than 3 days of menstruation, dysmenorrhea, usage of an intrauterine device (IUD), lack of RTIs knowledge, higher frequency of washing genitals before having sex with husband and changing underwear, lower frequency of sexual intercourse per month, and suffering from other RTIs.[Abstract]
    40. REVIEW
    41. Hickey RJ1, Zhou X, Pierson JD, Ravel J, Forney LJ. Transl Res. 2012 Oct;160(4):267-82. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2012.02.008. Understanding vaginal microbiome complexity from an ecological perspective
      Moreover, there are few unifying theories to explain the ecological dynamics of vaginal ecosystems as they respond to disturbances caused by menses and human activities such as intercourse, douching, and other habits and practices.[Article]
    42. OTHER
    43. Gallo MF1, Warner L, King CC, Sobel JD, Klein RS, Cu-Uvin S, Rompalo AM, Jamieson DJ. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:842652. doi: 10.1155/2011/842652 Association between semen exposure and incident bacterial vaginosis
      We found evidence of a relationship between semen exposure and incident BV.[Article]
    44. Anticonceptiepil

      REVIEW
    45. Sobel JD. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Aug 1;152(7 Pt 2):924-35. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis
      Evidence is presented of an increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the cause of which is unclear, but this increase is probably the result of multiple factors including widespread abuse of antibiotics, possibly oral contraceptives, and most important inadequate vaginal therapy.[Abstract]
    46. META
    47. Vodstrcil LA1, Hocking JS, Law M, Walker S, Tabrizi SN, Fairley CK, Bradshaw CS. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 4;8(9):e73055. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073055. eCollection 2013. Hormonal contraception is associated with a reduced risk of bacterial vaginosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
      HC-use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of BV.[Article]
    48. REVIEW
    49. Senft HH, Korte W. Chemotherapy. 1982;28 Suppl 1:3-13. Epidemiology, pathology and clinical features of genital mycoses–1981 status
      The rise in the incidence of the disease is due to several factors: the administration of corticosteroids, cystostatic agents, and oral contraceptives as well as socioeconomic circumstances.[Abstract]
    50. Oestrogeen

      OTHER
    51. Mendling W1, Brasch J; German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics; Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics; German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists; German Speaking Mycological Society. Mycoses. 2012 Jul;55 Suppl 3:1-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2012.02185.x. Guideline vulvovaginal candidosis (2010) of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics, the Working Group for Infections and Infectimmunology in Gynecology and Obstetrics, the German Society of Dermatology, the Board of German Dermatologists and the German Speaking Mycological Society
      Candida (C.) species colonize the estrogenized vagina in at least 20% of all women. This statistic rises to 30% in late pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients. The most often occurring species is Candida albicans.[Abstract]
    52. OTHER
    53. Relloso M1, Aragoneses-Fenoll L, Lasarte S, Bourgeois C, Romera G, Kuchler K, Corbí AL, Muñoz-Fernández MA, Nombela C, Rodríguez-Fernández JL, Diez-Orejas R. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Jan;91(1):159-65. doi: 10.1189/jlb.1110645. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans
      Candida albicans is a commensal opportunistic pathogen that is also a member of gastrointestinal and reproductive tract microbiota. Exogenous factors, such as oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and estradiol, may affect susceptibility to Candida infection, although the mechanisms involved in this process have not been elucidated.[Article]
    54. Ontlasting

      OTHER
    55. Brotman RM1, Melendez JH, Ghanem KG. Int J STD AIDS. 2011 Apr;22(4):231-3. doi: 10.1258/ijsa.2011.010307. A case control study of anovaginal distance and bacterial vaginosis
      Among high-risk women with multiple co-infections, there was no association between anovaginal distance and clinical diagnosis of BV.[Article]
    56. OTHER
    57. Petricevic L1, Domig KJ, Nierscher FJ, Sandhofer MJ, Krondorfer I, Kneifel W, Kiss H. Climacteric. 2013 Jun;16(3):356-61. doi: 10.3109/13697137.2012.725788. Differences in the vaginal lactobacilli of postmenopausal women and influence of rectal lactobacilli
      Our data indicate that rectal lactobacilli may affect the vaginal flora of postmenopausal women in the case of lactobacillary absence and help to maintain a normal vaginal microbiota.[Abstract]

    58. .[Abstract]

    Diagnose vaginale infectie

    1. Eekhof JA. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Jun 16;151(24):1327-9. The practice guideline ‘Vaginal discharge’ (first revision) from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice
      A recent onset of complaints of itching accompanied by white odourless discharge means a 70% chance of an infection with C. albicans. If the general practitioner also finds vulvar or vaginal inflammation and a nonhomogeneous fluor during examination the chance of an infection with C. albicans increases to 90%. In all other cases microscopic investigation is inevitable..[Abstract]

    2. .[Abstract]

    Ontlastingonderzoek


    1. .[Abstract]

    2. .[Abstract]

    Uitstrijkje

      REVIEW
    1. Martin DH. Am J Med Sci. 2012 Jan;343(1):2-9. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31823ea228. The microbiota of the vagina and its influence on women’s health and disease
      Overview of the vaginal microbiota table 1: Relative bacterial species composition (%) based on DNA extracted from vaginal specimens clinically diagnosed as normal (Nuget score of 0 to 3), intermediate (4 to 6), or BV (7 to 10). [Article]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Yang YL J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2003 Dec;36(4):223-8. Virulence factors of Candida species
      Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen, which colonizes at several anatomically distinct sites including skin, oral, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. How harmless commensal C. albicans become a human pathogen when opportunity comes is not clear. This review will focus on the molecular dissection of virulence factors of C. albicans, including adhesion, proteinases secretion, hyphal formation, and phenotypic switching. This review will also describe briefly the virulence factors in non-albicans Candida spp.[Abstract]

    4. .[Abstract]

    5. .[Abstract]

    Reguliere behandeling vaginale infectie

      Candida infectie

      Het gebruik van geneesmiddelen

      OTHER
    1. NHG-Standaard Fluor vaginalis
      De NHG-Standaard Fluor vaginalis geeft richtlijnen voor de diagnostiek en het beleid bij vrouwen in de reproductieve levensfase met klachten van fluor vaginalis, vaginale jeuk of irritatie.[Article]
    2. Artsen maken geen gebruik van probiotica

      RCT
    3. Vujic G1, Jajac Knez A, Despot Stefanovic V, Kuzmic Vrbanovic V. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013 May;168(1):75-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.031. Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
      Oral probiotics could be an alternative, side effect-free treatment for one of the most common indications in gynecology, combining the good aspects of both metronidazole and vaginal capsules.[Abstract]
    4. OTHER
    5. Sobel JD. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 1999 Oct;1(4):379-383. Is There a Protective Role for Vaginal Flora?
      Resident flora manifest colonization resistance to prevent or reduce the likelihood of exogenous microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, yeast, or parasites becoming established in the lower genital tract of women.[Abstract]
    6. Bacteriële infectie

      OTHER
    7. Tomusiak A1, Strus M, Heczko PB. Ginekol Pol. 2011 Dec;82(12):900-4. Antibiotic resistance of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from cases of bacterial vaginosis
      Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the dominant etiological factors related to bacterial vaginosis. Literature offers a growing number of reports revealing there appear Gardnerella vaginalis strains increasingly resistant to metronidazole. Near future may bring the need to change the treatment regimen of bacterial vaginosis.[Abstract]
    8. OTHER
    9. Schwebke JR1, Flynn MS, Rivers CA. Sex Transm Infect. 2014 Feb;90(1):61-3. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2013-051232. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis among women with lactobacillus-predominant vaginal flora
      Gardnerella may not be part of the normal flora in women with optimal vaginal health.[Abstract]
    10. REVIEW
    11. Schwebke JR1, Muzny CA1, Josey WE2. J Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 1;210(3):338-43. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu089. Role of Gardnerella vaginalis in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis: a conceptual model
      G. vaginalis is the pathogen responsible for the initiation of BV.[Abstract]
    12. REVIEW
    13. Martin DH. Am J Med Sci. 2012 Jan;343(1):2-9. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31823ea228. The microbiota of the vagina and its influence on women’s health and disease
      BV microbiota is dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and includes a number of anaerobic organisms. In contrast, normal flora is dominated by various Lactobacilli.[Article]
    14. OTHER
    15. Bukharin OV, Kremleva EA, Sgibnev AV, Cherkasov SV. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2013 Nov-Dec;(6):100-4. Role of dominant microflora in mechanisms of woman vaginal biotope protection
      Symbiotic interrelations of dominant microorganisms with host organism and associants under the condition of associative symbiosis leading to stimulation of production and potentiating of the effect of antibacterial protection factors are the basis for colonization resistance of vaginal biotope.[Abstract]
    16. RCT
    17. Falagas M, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 Jul;13(7):657-64. Probiotics for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis
      In-vitro studies have suggested that certain specific strains of lactobacilli are able to inhibit the adherence of Gardnerella vaginalis to the vaginal epithelium and/or produce H2O2, lactic acid and/or bacteriocins, which inhibit the growth of bacteria causing BV. Clinical trials showed that intra-vaginal administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus for 6-12 days, or oral administration of L. acidophilus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 for 2 months, resulted in the cure of BV.[Abstract]
    18. REVIEW
    19. Ciorba MA. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Sep;10(9):960-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2012.03.024.  A gastroenterologist’s guide to probiotics
      The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotic therapy and literature-based recommendations.[Article]
    20. Paracitaire infectie


    21. .[Abstract]

    Orthomoleculaire behandeling vaginale infectie

      Vaginale dysbiose, de kern van het probleem

      Lactobacillus is a Girl’s best Friend

      OTHER
    1. Eschenbach DA1, Davick PR, Williams BL, Klebanoff SJ, Young-Smith K, Critchlow CM, Holmes KK. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Feb;27(2):251-6. Prevalence of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis
      A predominance of Lactobacillus species in the vaginal flora is considered normal.[Article]
    2. OTHER
    3. Kovachev S. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2011;50(3):41-9. Vaginal ecosystem
      Lactic acid bacteria determinate the most of defense mechanisms of women vagina by concurrent adhesion, producing lactic acid, antimicrobial products, hydrogen peroxide and by local interactions with the innate and cell-mediated immune systems and plasminogen-plasmin system.[Abstract]
    4. REVIEW
    5. Linhares IM1, Giraldo PC, Baracat EC. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010 May-Jun;56(3):370-4. New findings about vaginal bacterial flora
      In the majority of women in the reproductive age there is a predominance of one or more species of Lactobacillus: L. crispatus, L. inners and L gasseri. However, in other apparently healthy women there is a deficiency or complete absence of Lactobacilli. Instead, there is a substitution by other lactic acid-producing bacteria: Atobium, Megasphaera and/or Leptotrichia species.[Abstract]
    6. OTHER
    7. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2013 Jul-Aug;141(7-8):560-4. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis
      Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species.[Abstract]
    8. Artsen behandelen geen dysbiose

      OTHER
    9. Sobel JD. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 1999 Oct;1(4):379-383. Is There a Protective Role for Vaginal Flora?
      The notion of a protective vaginal flora is relatively new. Resident flora manifest colonization resistance to prevent or reduce the likelihood of exogenous microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, yeast, or parasites becoming established in the lower genital tract of women.[Abstract]
    10. REVIEW
    11. Verstraelen H. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2008;70(3):147-74. Cutting edge: the vaginal microflora and bacterial vaginosis
      Under physiological conditions, the vaginal primarily harbours lactobacilli which ideally confer in mutualism with the vaginal epithelium colonisation resistance to other micro-organisms, thereby preventing ascending or systemic infection. Albeit only a few Lactobacillus species constitute the vaginal microflora, huge species- and strain-specific differences occur however, and these differences account for a wide variability in the intrinsic capability of the Lactobacillus microflora to maintain the vaginal ecosystem.[Abstract]
    12. RCT
    13. Vujic G1, Jajac Knez A, Despot Stefanovic V, Kuzmic Vrbanovic V. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013 May;168(1):75-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.12.031. Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
      Oral probiotics could be an alternative, side effect-free treatment for one of the most common indications in gynecology, combining the good aspects of both metronidazole and vaginal capsules.[Abstract]
    14. Waarom zijn de darmen belangrijk voor de vagina

      OTHER
    15. Institute of Pediatrics – Via L. Pinto Center of mucosal immunology & autoimmunity disorders
      The mucosal immune system is recognized by differences from its systemic counterpart. In many ways, it is the opposite of what might be viewed as systemic immunity, suppression rather than active immune responses. It is thought that this difference reflects the distinct challenges of each system: the mucosa directly exposed to the external environment and taxed with antigenic loads consisting of commensal bacteria, dietary antigens, and viruses at far greater quantities on a daily basis than the systemic immune system sees in a lifetime. It is recognized that the mucosal immune response is also distinct, largely focused on suppressing immunity rather than promoting it.[Article]
    16. REVIEW
    17. Tlaskalová-Hogenová H1, Stepánková R, Hudcovic T, Tucková L, Cukrowska B, Lodinová-Zádníková R, Kozáková H, Rossmann P, Bártová J, Sokol D, Funda DP, Borovská D, Reháková Z, Sinkora J, Hofman J, Drastich P, Kokesová A. Immunol Lett. 2004 May 15;93(2-3):97-108. Commensal bacteria (normal microflora), mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
      The mucosal immune system has developed specialised regulatory, anti-inflammatory mechanisms for eliminating or tolerating non-dangerous, food and airborne antigens and commensal micro-organisms (oral, mucosal tolerance). However, at the same time the mucosal immune system must provide local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens). [Abstract]
    18. REVIEW
    19. Noverr MC1, Huffnagle GB. Trends Microbiol. 2004 Dec;12(12):562-8. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut?
      Perturbations in the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition that occur as a result of antibiotics and diet in “westernized” countries are strongly associated with allergies and asthma (“hygiene hypothesis”). The microbiota (“microflora”) plays a crucial role in the development of mucosal tolerance, including the airways. Significant attention has been focused on the role of the microbiota in GI development, immune adaptation and initiation of GI inflammatory diseases. This review covers the post-developmental functions that the microbiota plays in regulating immunological tolerance to allergen exposure outside the GI tract and proposes the question: is the microbiota a major regulator of the immune system?[Article]
    20. OTHER
    21. Lewis DJ1, Hayward CM. Methods Mol Med. 1996;4:187-95. doi: 10.1385/0-89603-334-1:187. Stimulation of mucosal immunity
      The mucosal immune system is composed of distinct regional immune tissue (e.g., “GALT,” gut-associated lymphoid tissue; “BALT,” bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue; reproductive tract and breast tissue, and so forth) interconnected by trafficking of primed lymphocytes as a common “mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue,” “MALT”. Furthermore, by characterizing mucosa homing lymphocytes trafficking in the blood, it may be possible to indirectly study mucosal responses.[Abstract]
    22. REVIEW
    23. Kunisawa J1, Fukuyama S, Kiyono H. Curr Mol Med. 2005 Sep;5(6):557-72. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in the aerodigestive tract: their shared and divergent traits and their importance to the orchestration of the mucosal immune systme
      As inductive tissues for the initiation of antigen-specific T and B cell responses, the various mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) of the aerodigestive tract, which include gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), share many histological and immunological characteristics.[Abstract]
    24. REVIEW
    25. Kuper CF. Toxicol Pathol. 2006;34(5):609-15. Histopathology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
      Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a generalized term incorporating a disseminated collection of lymphoid tissues in multiple sites throughout the body. MALT sites that have been/are primarily studied include bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT).[Article]

    26. .[Abstract]

    27. .[Abstract]

    Orthomoleculaire behandeling vaginale infectie voeding

      De onzin van het Candida dieet

      OTHER
    1. Vargas SL1, Patrick CC, Ayers GD, Hughes WT. Infect Immun. 1993 Feb;61(2):619-26. Modulating effect of dietary carbohydrate supplementation on Candida albicans colonization and invasion in a neutropenic mouse model
      The data provide an experimental rationale for clinical trials to decrease the intake of glucose or its utilization by C. albicans in immunocompromised patients.[Article]
    2. CLINICAL
    3. Weig M1, Werner E, Frosch M, Kasper H. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jun;69(6):1170-3. Limited effect of refined carbohydrate dietary supplementation on colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy subjects by Candida albicans
      The effect of adding a high amount of refined carbohydrates to the diet of healthy human subjects has a limited influence on Candida colonization. Follow-up studies should define whether selected patient groups might benefit from dietary restriction of refined carbohydrates.[Article]
    4. REVIEW
    5. Rösch W. Versicherungsmedizin. 1996 Dec 1;48(6):215-7. Fungi in feces, fungi in the intestines–therapeutic consequences?
      Candida hypersensitivity syndrome does not exist, antifungal diet does not eradicate yeast. [Abstract]
    6. OTHER
    7. Ehrström S1, Yu A, Rylander E. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;108(6):1432-7. Glucose in vaginal secretions before and after oral glucose tolerance testing in women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis
      There were no differences between women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control subjects regarding change in glucose level in vaginal secretions or in plasma during oral glucose tolerance test.[Abstract]
    8. Het Westerse dieet is slecht voor onze microbiome

      OTHER
    9. NIH HMP Working Group, Peterson J, Garges S, Giovanni M, McInnes P, Wang L, Schloss JA, Bonazzi V, McEwen JE, Wetterstrand KA, Deal C, Baker CC, Di Francesco V, Howcroft TK, Karp RW, Lunsford RD, Wellington CR, Belachew T, Wright M, Giblin C, David H, Mills M, Salomon R, Mullins C, Akolkar B, Begg L,Davis C, Grandison L, Humble M, Khalsa J, Little AR, Peavy H, Pontzer C, Portnoy M, Sayre MH, Starke-Reed P, Zakhari S, Read J, Watson B, Guyer M. Genome Res. 2009 Dec;19(12):2317-23. doi: 10.1101/gr.096651.109.  The NIH Human Microbiome Project.
      The ultimate objective of the HMP is to demonstrate that there are opportunities to improve human health through monitoring or manipulation of the human microbiome.[Article]
    10. ANIMAL
    11. Turnbaugh PJ1, Ridaura VK, Faith JJ, Rey FE, Knight R, Gordon JI. Sci Transl Med. 2009 Nov 11;1(6):6ra14. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000322. The effect of diet on the human gut microbiome: a metagenomic analysis in humanized gnotobiotic mice
      Switching from a low-fat, plant polysaccharide-rich diet to a high-fat, high-sugar “Western” diet shifted the structure of the microbiota within a single day, changed the representation of metabolic pathways in the microbiome, and altered microbiome gene expression.[Article]
    12. REVIEW
    13. Scott KP1, Gratz SW, Sheridan PO, Flint HJ, Duncan SH. Pharmacol Res. 2013 Mar;69(1):52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2012.10.020. The influence of diet on the gut microbiota
      Diet is a major factor driving the composition and metabolism of the colonic microbiota. The amount, type and balance of the main dietary macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) have a great impact on the large intestinal microbiota.[Abstract]
    14. Een dysbiose in de microbiome veroozaakt aantal chronische ziekten

      Ontsteking

      REVIEW
    15. Leone V1, Chang EB, Devkota S. J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;48(3):315-21. doi: 10.1007/s00535-013-0777-2. Diet, microbes, and host genetics: the perfect storm in inflammatory bowel diseases
      While many studies have shown that IBD exhibits a genetic component via genome-wide association studies, genetic drift alone cannot account for this increase, and other factors, such as those found in the environment must play a role, suggesting a “multiple hit” phenomenon that precipitates disease. One major environmental factor, dietary intake, has shifted to a high fat, high carbohydrate Western-type diet in developing nations, nearly in direct correlation with the increasing incidence of IBD. Recent evidence suggests that specific changes in dietary intake have led to a shift in the composite human gut microbiota, resulting in the emergence of pathobionts that can thrive under specific conditions.[Article]
    16. REVIEW
    17. Thorburn AN1, Macia L1, Mackay CR2. Immunity. 2014 Jun 19;40(6):833-42. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.05.014. Diet, metabolites, and “western-lifestyle” inflammatory diseases
      We propose that insufficient exposure to dietary and bacterial metabolites might underlie the development of inflammatory disorders in Western countries. This review highlights what is currently known about diet, metabolites, and their associated immune pathways in relation to the development of inflammatory disease.[Abstract]
    18. REVIEW
    19. Moran CP1, Shanahan F2. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug;28(4):585-597. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2014.07.005. Gut microbiota and obesity: Role in aetiology and potential therapeutic target
      Evidence from murine models initially suggested a role for the gut microbiota in weight regulation and the microbiota has been shown to contribute to the low grade inflammation that characterises obesity.[Abstract]
    20. REVIEW
    21. Cox AJ1, West NP2, Cripps AW2. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Jul 21. pii: S2213-8587(14)70134-2. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70134-2 Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota
      In this Review, we provide evidence supporting perturbation of the intestinal microbiota and changes in intestinal permeability as potential triggers of inflammation in obesity.[Abstract]
    22. REVIEW
    23. Huang EY1, Devkota S, Moscoso D, Chang EB, Leone VA. Microbes Infect. 2013 Nov;15(12):765-74. doi: 10.1016/j.micinf.2013.07.004. The role of diet in triggering human inflammatory disorders in the modern age
      Previously uncommon human inflammatory disorders are emerging with alarming frequency, possibly triggered by environmental factors introduced through Westernization. This review highlights how Western diets heighten the inflammatory state promoting development of disease.[Abstract]
    24. OTHER
    25. Wu GD. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2014;79:73-82. doi: 10.1159/000360686. Diet, the Gut Microbiome and the Metabolome in IBD
      With respect to the later, diet has an impact upon both the composition and function of the microbiota. There are epidemiologic data associating diet with the development of IBD as well as evidence that diet can influence both the form and function of the microbiome in a manner that impacts upon the development of intestinal inflammation.[Abstract]
    26. MetS

      REVIEW
    27. Moreno-Indias I, Cardona F, Tinahones FJ, Queipo-Ortuño MI. Front Microbiol. 2014 Apr 29;5:190. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00190. eCollection 2014. Impact of the gut microbiota on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
      A new theory suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the regulation of energy homeostasis, provoking the development of an impairment in energy homeostasis and causing metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance or TDM2.[Article]
    28. REVIEW
    29. Carvalho BM1, Saad MJ. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:986734. doi: 10.1155/2013/986734. Influence of gut microbiota on subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance
      Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promoted by a bacterial diversity shift mediated by overnutrition. Whole bacteria, their products, and metabolites undergo increased translocation through the gut epithelium to the circulation due to degraded tight junctions and the consequent increase in intestinal permeability that culminates in inflammation and insulin resistance.[Article]
    30. Overgewicht

      META
    31. da Silva ST1, dos Santos CA, Bressan J. Nutr Hosp. 2013 Jul-Aug;28(4):1039-48. doi: 10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6525. Intestinal microbiota; relevance to obesity and modulation by prebiotics and probiotics
      The intestinal microbiota has several beneficial functions related to host health. Studies suggest that it may be related to the presence of metabolic diseases, including obesity.[Abstract]
    32. META
    33. Million M1, Angelakis E, Paul M, Armougom F, Leibovici L, Raoult D. Microb Pathog. 2012 Aug;53(2):100-8. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2012.05.007 Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals
      Different Lactobacillus species are associated different effects on weight change that are host-specific. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of Lactobacillus species in the human energy harvest and weight regulation.[Article]
    34. Allergie

      REVIEW
    35. Noverr MC1, Huffnagle GB. Trends Microbiol. 2004 Dec;12(12):562-8. Does the microbiota regulate immune responses outside the gut?
      Perturbations in the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition that occur as a result of antibiotics and diet in “westernized” countries are strongly associated with allergies and asthma (“hygiene hypothesis”). The microbiota (“microflora”) plays a crucial role in the development of mucosal tolerance, including the airways. Significant attention has been focused on the role of the microbiota in GI development, immune adaptation and initiation of GI inflammatory diseases. This review covers the post-developmental functions that the microbiota plays in regulating immunological tolerance to allergen exposure outside the GI tract and proposes the question: is the microbiota a major regulator of the immune system?[Article]
    36. REVIEW
    37. Hörmannsperger G1, Clavel T, Haller D. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jun;129(6):1452-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.12.993 Gut matters: microbe-host interactions in allergic diseases
      The mammalian barrier and immune functions warrant simultaneous protection of the host against deleterious infections, as well as tolerance toward harmless commensals. Because these pivotal host functions evolved under high microbial pressure, they obviously depend on a complex network of microbe-host interactions. The rapid spread of immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and allergies, in westernized countries is thus thought to be due to environmentally mediated disturbances of this microbe-host interaction network.[Abstract]
    38. REVIEW
    39. Macia L1, Thorburn AN, Binge LC, Marino E, Rogers KE, Maslowski KM, Vieira AT, Kranich J, Mackay CR. Immunol Rev. 2012 Jan;245(1):164-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01080.x. Microbial influences on epithelial integrity and immune function as a basis for inflammatory diseases
      Diet affects the composition of the gut microbiota, and recent studies have identified various molecules and mechanisms that connect diet, the gut microbiota, and immune responses. Herein, we discuss the effects of microbial metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids, on epithelial integrity as well as immune cell function. We propose that dysbiosis contributes to compromised epithelial integrity and disrupted immune tolerance.[Abstract]
    40. Type 1

      REVIEW
    41. Vaarala O1, Atkinson MA, Neu J. Diabetes. 2008 Oct;57(10):2555-62. doi: 10.2337/db08-0331. The “perfect storm” for type 1 diabetes: the complex interplay between intestinal microbiota, gut permeability, and mucosal immunity
      While agreeing with this principal, our desire is that this Perspectives article will highlight another complex interplay potentially associated with this disease involving facets related to the gut, one where individual factors that, upon their interaction with each another, form a “perfect storm” critical to the development of type 1 diabetes.[Article]
    42. REVIEW
    43. Vaarala O. Rev Diabet Stud. 2012 Winter;9(4):251-9. doi: 10.1900/RDS.2012.9.251. Gut microbiota and type 1 diabetes
      Despite the complex interaction of microbiota, host, environment, and disease mechanisms, gut microbiota are promising novel targets in the prevention of type 1 diabetes.[Article]
    44. REVIEW
    45. Vaarala O. Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Mar;90(3):271-6. doi: 10.1038/icb.2011.115. Is the origin of type 1 diabetes in the gut?
      It is likely that our microbial environment does not support the healthy maturation of the gut and tolerance in the gut, and this leads to the increasing type 1 diabetes as well as other immune-mediated diseases regulated by intestinal immune system. Thus, the interventions, aiming to prevent or treat type 1 diabetes in humans, should be targeting the gut immune system.[Abstract]
    46. Artritis

      REVIEW
    47. Taneja V. FEBS Lett. 2014 May 27. pii: S0014-5793(14)00421-9. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2014.05.034. [ Arthritis susceptibility and the gut microbiome
      The gut commensals are involved in maintaining host immune homeostasis and function suggesting that they might be critical in altering the immune system, which leads to autoimmune diseases like RA.[Abstract]
    48. Tradiotionele voeding blijkt veel beter te zijn

      REVIEW
    49. Tagliabue A1, Elli M. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Mar;23(3):160-8. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2012.09.002. The role of gut microbiota in human obesity: recent findings and future perspectives
      In humans, obesity has been associated with reduced bacterial diversity and an altered representation of bacterial species.[Abstract]
    50. OTHER
    51. De Filippo C1, Cavalieri D, Di Paola M, Ramazzotti M, Poullet JB, Massart S, Collini S, Pieraccini G, Lionetti P. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 17;107(33):14691-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1005963107. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa
      This study investigates and compares human intestinal microbiota from children characterized by a modern western diet and a rural diet, indicating the importance of preserving this treasure of microbial diversity from ancient rural communities worldwide. Dietary habits are considered one of the main factors contributing to the diversity of human gut microbiota. [Article]
    52. OTHER
    53. Haahtela T1, Holgate S, Pawankar R, Akdis CA, Benjaponpitak S, Caraballo L, Demain J, Portnoy J, von Hertzen L; WAO Special Committee on Climate Change and Biodiversity. World Allergy Organ J. 2013 Jan 31;6(1):3. doi: 10.1186/1939-4551-6-3. The biodiversity hypothesis and allergic disease: world allergy organization position statement
      Studies of immigrants moving from non-affluent to affluent regions indicate that tolerance mechanisms can rapidly become impaired in microbe-poor environments.[Article]
    54. Mediterranean diet

      OTHER
    55. Montemurno E1, Cosola C, Dalfino G, Daidone G, De Angelis M, Gobbetti M, Gesualdo L. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2014;39(2-3):114-23. doi: 10.1159/000355785. What Would You Like to Eat, Mr CKD Microbiota? A Mediterranean Diet, please!
      Gut microbiota shaping through non-pharmacologic nutritional treatments, based on Mediterranean Diet, represents an innovative approach in CKD, potentially restoring microbiota balance, ameliorating CKD conditions and slowing down disease progression.[Abstract]
    56. OTHER
    57. Lopez-Legarrea P1, Fuller NR, Zulet MA, Martinez JA, Caterson ID. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(3):360-8. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.3.16. The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state
      Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.[Article]
    58. OTHER
    59. Del Chierico F1, Vernocchi P2, Dallapiccola B3, Putignani L4. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Jul 1;15(7):11678-99. doi: 10.3390/ijms150711678. Mediterranean diet and health: food effects on gut microbiota and disease control
      The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models. Many of the characteristic components of the MD have functional features with positive effects on health and wellness. Furthermore, eating habits are the main significant determinants of the microbial multiplicity of the gut, and dietary components influence both microbial populations and their metabolic activities from the early stages of life.[Article]
    60. Paleo dieet

      REVIEW
    61. Cordain L1, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O’Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century
      There is growing awareness that the profound changes in the environment (eg, in diet and other lifestyle conditions) that began with the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry approximately 10000 y ago occurred too recently on an evolutionary time scale for the human genome to adjust.[Article]
    62. OTHER
    63. Eaton SB1, Eaton SB 3rd. Eur J Nutr. 2000 Apr;39(2):67-70. Paleolithic vs. modern diets–selected pathophysiological implications
      Our genome can have changed little since the beginnings of agriculture, so, genetically, humans remain Stone Agers–adapted for a Paleolithic dietary regime.[Abstract]
    64. REVIEW
    65. Turner BL1, Thompson AL. Nutr Rev. 2013 Aug;71(8):501-10. doi: 10.1111/nure.12039. Beyond the Paleolithic prescription: incorporating diversity and flexibility in the study of human diet evolution
      Evolutionary paradigms of human health and nutrition center on the evolutionary discordance or “mismatch” model in which human bodies, reflecting adaptations established in the Paleolithic era, are ill-suited to modern industrialized diets, resulting in rapidly increasing rates of chronic metabolic disease. [Article]
    66. REVIEW
    67. Bengmark S. Pharmacol Res. 2013 Mar;69(1):87-113. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2012.09.002. Gut microbiota, immune development and function
      The microbiota of Westerners is significantly reduced in comparison to rural individuals living a similar lifestyle to our Paleolithic forefathers but also to that of other free-living primates such as the chimpanzee. Dramatic alterations, in direction of a paleolithic-like lifestyle and food habits, seem to be the only alternatives with the potential to control the present escalating crisis. [Abstract]
    68. OTHER
    69. Spreadbury I. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2012;5:175-89. doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S33473 Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity
      A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular tubers, leaves, and fruits may produce a gastrointestinal microbiota consistent with our evolutionary condition, potentially explaining the exceptional macronutrient-independent metabolic health of non-Westernized populations, and the apparent efficacy of the modern “Paleolithic” diet on satiety and metabolism.[Article]

    Onverteerbaar zetmeel

      Wat is onverteerbaar zetmeel?

      Zetmeel is een soort koolhydraat

    1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Zetmeel
      Zetmeel (molecuulformule: (C6H10O5)n) is een verzamelnaam voor de complexe polymeren van glucose en koolhydraten die in de natuur dienen als voedselreserve voor planten.[Article]
    2. Onverteerbaar zetmeel moet worden gefermenteerd

    3. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Resistant starch
      Resistant starch (RS) is starch and starch degradation products that escape from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.[1] Resistant starch is considered the third type of dietary fiber, as it can deliver some of the benefits of insoluble fiber and some of the benefits of soluble fiber.[Article]
    4. REVIEW
    5. Higgins JA. J AOAC Int. 2004 May-Jun;87(3):761-8. Resistant starch: metabolic effects and potential health benefits
      By definition, resistant starch (RS) is any starch that is not digested in the small intestine but passes to the large bowel. Here, RS is a good substrate for fermentation which gives rise to an increase in short-chain fatty acid production.[Abstract]
    6. REVIEW
    7. Ze X1, Le Mougen F, Duncan SH, Louis P, Flint HJ. Gut Microbes. 2013 May-Jun;4(3):236-40. doi: 10.4161/gmic.23998. Some are more equal than others: the role of “keystone” species in the degradation of recalcitrant substrates
      We have recently reported that Ruminococcus bromii has a superior ability to degrade certain forms of particulate resistant starch (RS) when compared with other highly abundant species of amylolytic bacteria found in the human colon and have presented evidence that this bacterium provides an example of a keystone species within the microbial community with respect to RS fermentation. [Article]
    8. OTHER
    9. Ze X1, Duncan SH, Louis P, Flint HJ. ISME J. 2012 Aug;6(8):1535-43. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.4. Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon
      Previous work has emphasized the numerical abundance of amylolytic Bacteroides spp. and the ability of certain Bifidobacterium spp. to degrade resistant starches. This work also indicates that R. bromii possesses an exceptional ability to colonize and degrade starch particles when compared with previously studied amylolytic bacteria from the human colon.[Article]
    10. REVIEW
    11. Louis P1, Flint HJ. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009 May;294(1):1-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01514.x. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine
      Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes.[Article]
    12. REVIEW
    13. Cummings JH1, Macfarlane GT. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1997 Nov-Dec;21(6):357-65. Role of intestinal bacteria in nutrient metabolism
      The human large intestine contains a microbiota, the components of which are generically complex and metabolically diverse. Its primary function is to salvage energy from carbohydrate not digested in the upper gut. This is achieved through fermentation and absorption of the major products, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), which represent 40-50% of the available energy of the carbohydrate. The principal SCFA, acetate, propionate and butyrate, are metabolized by the colonic epithelium (butyrate), liver (propionate) and muscle (acetate). Intestinal bacteria also have a role in the synthesis of vitamins B and K.[Abstract]
    14. REVIEW
    15. Bird AR1, Conlon MA, Christophersen CT, Topping DL. Benef Microbes. 2010 Nov;1(4):423-31. doi: 10.3920/BM2010.0041. Resistant starch, large bowel fermentation and a broader perspective of prebiotics and probiotics
      Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fibre component and its fermentation generally favours butyrate production. [Abstract]
    16. REVIEW
    17. Wong JM1, de Souza R, Kendall CW, Emam A, Jenkins DJ. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Mar;40(3):235-43. Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids
      Dietary carbohydrates, specifically resistant starches and dietary fiber, are substrates for fermentation that produce SCFAs, primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, as end products. The rate and amount of SCFA production depends on the species and amounts of microflora present in the colon, the substrate source and gut transit time. SCFAs are readily absorbed. Butyrate is the major energy source for colonocytes. [Abstract]
    18. OTHER
    19. Donohoe DR1, Garge N, Zhang X, Sun W, O’Connell TM, Bunger MK, Bultman SJ. Cell Metab. 2011 May 4;13(5):517-26. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.02.018. The microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon
      This tissue specificity is due to colonocytes utilizing bacterially produced butyrate as their primary energy source.[Article]
    20. Gezondheidsvoordelen van onverteerbaar zetmeel

      Voor darmflora en darmen

      COLON HEALTHREVIEW
    21. Pryde SE1, Duncan SH, Hold GL, Stewart CS, Flint HJ. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002 Dec 17;217(2):133-9. The microbiology of butyrate formation in the human colon
      Butyrate arising from microbial fermentation is important for the energy metabolism and normal development of colonic epithelial cells and has a mainly protective role in relation to colonic disease.[Abstract]
    22. RCT
    23. McOrist AL1, Miller RB, Bird AR, Keogh JB, Noakes M, Topping DL, Conlon MA. J Nutr. 2011 May;141(5):883-9. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.128504. Fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but are usually increased by a diet high in resistant starch
      In conclusion, fecal butyrate levels vary widely among individuals but consuming a diet high in RS usually increases levels and may help maintain colorectal health.[Article]
    24. REVIEW
    25. Topping DL1, Clifton PM. Physiol Rev. 2001 Jul;81(3):1031-64. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides
      Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate. SCFA stimulate colonic blood flow and fluid and electrolyte uptake. Butyrate is a preferred substrate for colonocytes and appears to promote a normal phenotype in these cells.[Article]
    26. OTHER
    27. Zimmerman MA1, Singh N, Martin PM, Thangaraju M, Ganapathy V, Waller JL, Shi H, Robertson KD, Munn DH, Liu K Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012 Jun 15;302(12):G1405-15. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00543.2011 Butyrate suppresses colonic inflammation through HDAC1-dependent Fas upregulation and Fas-mediated apoptosis of T cells
      Our data thus suggest that butyrate delivers a double-hit: induction of T cell apoptosis to eliminate the source of inflammation and suppression of IFN-?-mediated inflammation in colonic epithelial cells, to suppress colonic inflammation.[Article]
    28. REVIEW
    29. Salonen A1, de Vos WM. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2014;5:239-62. doi: 10.1146/annurev-food-030212-182554. Impact of diet on human intestinal microbiota and health
      Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate systemic immune and metabolic responses.[Abstract]
    30. SOORTENOTHER
    31. Yang J1, Martínez I, Walter J, Keshavarzian A, Rose DJ. Anaerobe. 2013 Oct;23:74-81. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2013.06.012. In vitro characterization of the impact of selected dietary fibers on fecal microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid production
      a significant increase in Bifidobacterium adolescentis type-2 was observed on resistant starch.[Abstract]
    32. REVIEW
    33. Flint HJ. Nutr Rev. 2012 Aug;70 Suppl 1:S10-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00499.x. The impact of nutrition on the human microbiome
      Diet-derived carbohydrates that are not fully digested in the upper gut, known as nondigestible carbohydrates, provide a major source of energy for bacteria that colonize the human large intestine. It is well established that dietary intake of nondigestible carbohydrates influences microbial fermentation and total bacterial numbers in the colon.[Abstract]
    34. PREBIOTICREVIEW
    35. Subari? D1, A?kar D, Babi? J, Mili?evi? B. Med Glas (Zenica). 2012 Feb;9(1):17-22. Starch for health
      Recent studies have shown that resistant starch may be a substrate for bacterial flora of the colon and serves as prebiotic. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by colonic fermentation of resistant starch may have impact on colonic function and health of human.[Abstract]
    36. REVIEW
    37. Bird AR1, Conlon MA, Christophersen CT, Topping DL. Benef Microbes. 2010 Nov;1(4):423-31. doi: 10.3920/BM2010.0041. Resistant starch, large bowel fermentation and a broader perspective of prebiotics and probiotics
      RS is not regarded widely as a prebiotic but (according to the accepted definition) most forms show the requisite features in stimulating specific bacteria, giving raised total SCFA and butyrate levels and a consequent benefit to the hos.[Abstract]
    38. REVIEW
    39. Slavin J. Nutrients. 2013 Apr 22;5(4):1417-35. doi: 10.3390/nu5041417. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits
      To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus.[Article]
    40. Andere gezondheidsvoordelen

      REVIEW
    41. Higgins JA1, Brown IL. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;29(2):190-4. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32835b9aa3. Resistant starch: a promising dietary agent for the prevention/treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and bowel cancer
      Resistant starch has been investigated in the past for its effects on bowel health (pH, epithelial thickness, and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells); reduction in postprandial glycemia; increased insulin sensitivity; and effects on the gut microbiome.[Abstract]
    42. KANKERREVIEW
    43. Williams EA1, Coxhead JM, Mathers JC. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Feb;62(1):107-15. Anti-cancer effects of butyrate: use of micro-array technology to investigate mechanisms
      Epidemiological evidence suggests that a high intake of resistant starch and NSP protects against colo-rectal cancer. The mechanisms underlying this protection are thought to be mediated by the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, which is present in the colonic lumen in millimolar concentrations as a result of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates that have resisted digestion in the small intestine.[Article]
    44. REVIEW
    45. Van Munster IP1, Nagengast FM Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1993;200:80-6. The role of carbohydrate fermentation in colon cancer prevention
      Fermentation is probably the key factor in the protective effect of fibre on colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, consumption of resistant starch seems to be another way of stimulating fermentation.[Abstract]
    46. REVIEW
    47. Fung KY1, Cosgrove L, Lockett T, Head R, Topping DL. Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep;108(5):820-31. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001948. A review of the potential mechanisms for the lowering of colorectal oncogenesis by butyrate
      RS fermentation induces SCFA production, in particular, relatively high butyrate levels, and in vitro studies have shown that this acid has strong anti-tumorigenic properties.[Article]
    48. REVIEW
    49. Hylla S1, Gostner A, Dusel G, Anger H, Bartram HP, Christl SU, Kasper H, Scheppach W. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jan;67(1):136-42. Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention
      Recent evidence suggests that resistant starch (RS) is the single most important substrate for bacterial carbohydrate fermentation in the human colon. These data suggest that RS has potentially important effects on bacterial metabolism in the human colon that may be relevant for cancer prevention.[Article]
    50. INSULINE RESISTENTIEANIMAL
    51. Gao Z1, Yin J, Zhang J, Ward RE, Martin RJ, Lefevre M, Cefalu WT, Ye J. Diabetes. 2009 Jul;58(7):1509-17. doi: 10.2337/db08-1637. Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice
      Dietary supplementation of butyrate can prevent and treat diet-induced insulin resistance in mouse. The mechanism of butyrate action is related to promotion of energy expenditure and induction of mitochondria function.[Article]
    52. RCT
    53. Johnston KL1, Thomas EL, Bell JD, Frost GS, Robertson MD. Diabet Med. 2010 Apr;27(4):391-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.02923.x. Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome
      Consumption of resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.[Abstract]
    54. CLINICAL
    55. Raben A1, Tagliabue A, Christensen NJ, Madsen J, Holst JJ, Astrup A. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 Oct;60(4):544-51. Resistant starch: the effect on postprandial glycemia, hormonal response, and satiety
      In conclusion, the replacement of digestible starch with RS resulted in significant reductions in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and in the subjective sensations of satiety.[Article]
    56. RCT
    57. Brighenti F1, Benini L, Del Rio D, Casiraghi C, Pellegrini N, Scazzina F, Jenkins DJ, Vantini I. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83(4):817-22. Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect
      Fermentable carbohydrates, independent of their effect on a food’s glycemic index, have the potential to regulate postprandial responses to a second meal by reducing NEFA competition for glucose disposal and, to a minor extent, by affecting intestinal motility.[Article]
    58. REVIEW
    59. Tapsell LC. J AOAC Int. 2004 May-Jun;87(3):756-60. Diet and metabolic syndrome: where does resistant starch fit in?
      Current knowledge suggests that resistant starch in the diet may assist in the prevention and management of conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome via its potential effects on delaying the delivery of glucose as fuel with subsequent fat utilization and appetite control benefits.[Abstract]
    60. RCT
    61. Kwak JH1, Paik JK, Kim HI, Kim OY, Shin DY, Kim HJ, Lee JH, Lee JH. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Oct;224(2):457-64. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.08.003. Dietary treatment with rice containing resistant starch improves markers of endothelial function with reduction of postprandial blood glucose and oxidative stress in patients with prediabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes
      In patients with IFG, IGT or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 4-weeks of dietary treatment with rice containing resistant starch was associated with improved endothelial function with reduction of postprandial glucose and oxidative stress compared with control.[Abstract]
    62. RCT
    63. Maki KC1, Pelkman CL, Finocchiaro ET, Kelley KM, Lawless AL, Schild AL, Rains TM. J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):717-23. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.152975. Resistant starch from high-amylose maize increases insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese men
      These results suggest that consumption of 15-30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves S(I) in men.[Article]
    64. RCT
    65. Bodinham CL1, Frost GS, Robertson MD. Br J Nutr. 2010 Mar;103(6):917-22. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509992534. Acute ingestion of resistant starch reduces food intake in healthy adults
      These results suggest that consumption of 48 g RS, over a 24-h period, may be useful in the management of the metabolic syndrome and appetite.[Article]
    66. CLINICAL
    67. Park OJ1, Kang NE, Chang MJ, Kim WK. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004 Apr;50(2):93-9. Resistant starch supplementation influences blood lipid concentrations and glucose control in overweight subjects
      These results suggest that RS supplementation improves the blood lipid profile and controls the blood glucose levels in healthy overweight subjects without bowel discomfort.[Abstract]
    68. AGINGANIMAL
    69. Tachon S1, Zhou J, Keenan M, Martin R, Marco ML. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2013 Feb;83(2):299-309. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01475.x. The intestinal microbiota in aged mice is modulated by dietary resistant starch and correlated with improvements in host responses
      Dietary interventions might prevent or reverse age-related declines in health through modification of the activity and composition of the intestinal microbiota. This study showed that aging mice harbor a distinct microbiota, which can be modulated by RS and enriched for bacteria that are associated with improved health. [Abstract]
    70. Vitamine enmineralen

      REVIEW
    71. Ramakrishna BS. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Dec;28 Suppl 4:9-17. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12294. Role of the gut microbiota in human nutrition and metabolis
      The gut microbiota produce a variety of nutrients including short-chain fatty acids, B vitamins, and vitamin K.[Abstract]
    72. REVIEW
    73. Resta SC. J Physiol. 2009 Sep 1;587(Pt 17):4169-74. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.176370. Effects of probiotics and commensals on intestinal epithelial physiology: implications for nutrient handling
      Microorganisms of the gut microbiota ferment carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids, convert dietary and endogenous nitrogenous compounds into ammonia and microbial protein, and synthesize and activate B vitamins and vitamin K.[Article]
    74. ANIMAL
    75. Younes H1, Coudray C, Bellanger J, Demigné C, Rayssiguier Y, Rémésy C. Br J Nutr. 2001 Oct;86(4):479-85. Effects of two fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and resistant starch) and their combination on calcium and magnesium balance in rats
      In conclusion, a combination of different carbohydrates showed synergistic effects on intestinal Ca absorption and balance in rats.[Article]
    76. REVIEW
    77. Raigond P1, Ezekiel R, Raigond B. J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Oct 21. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6966. Resistant Starch in Food: A Review
      The beneficial effects of RS include glycemic control, control of fasting plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and absorption of minerals.[Abstract]
    78. REVIEW
    79. Coudray C1, Demigné C, Rayssiguier Y. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):1-4. Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans
      In 1977 it was observed that resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber, could improve Mg absorption in rats. To date, four human studies have been carried out that generally confirmed the enhancing effect of fermentable oligo- or polysaccharides on Mg absorption. [Article]
    80. REVIEW
    81. Greger JL. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1434S-5S. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability
      Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine.[Abstract]
    82. REVIEW
    83. Champ MM. J AOAC Int. 2004 May-Jun;87(3):749-55. Physiological aspects of resistant starch and in vivo measurements
      Another important property is linked to its ability to lower colonic pH, which is usually considered as beneficial for mineral biovailability in the colon or cancer prevention.[Abstract]
    84. Tekort aan onverteerbaar zetmeel

      REVIEW
    85. Sonnenburg ED1, Sonnenburg JL2. Cell Metab. 2014 Aug 20. pii: S1550-4131(14)00311-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.003. Starving our Microbial Self: The Deleterious Consequences of a Diet Deficient in Microbiota-Accessible Carbohydrates
      The gut microbiota of a healthy person may not be equivalent to a healthy microbiota. It is possible that the Western microbiota is actually dysbiotic and predisposes individuals to a variety of diseases. The Western lifestyle, which includes a diet low in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), has selected for a microbiota with altered membership and functionality compared to those of groups living traditional lifestyles.[Abstract]
    86. Welke voeding bevat onverteerbaar zetmeel?

      REVIEW
    87. M.G. Sajilata, Rekha S. Singhal andPushpa R. Kulkarni Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safet Resistant Starch–A Review
      Types of RS, factors influencing their formation, consequence of such formation, their methods of preparation, their methods of estimation, and health benefits have been briefly discussed in this review.[Article]
    88. OTHER
    89. Wac³aw Leszczyñski Department of Food Storage and Technology, Agricultural University of Wroc³aw, Wroclaw, Poland RESISTANT STARCH – CLASSIFICATION, STRUCTURE, PRODUCTION
      In A-type starch, double helices of chains, usually 10–12 glucose residues in length, crystallizing in a hexagonal system, are densely packed, with a small share of crystallisation water (4 water particles per 12 glucose residues). The B-type crystals with a pseudo-hexagonal system are formed by rather loosely arranged double helices of chains, 13–18 glucose residues in length, with the share of a considerable number of water particles (36 per 12 glucose residues), grouped mainly in the centre of the crystal “cell”. The C form is considered a mixture of A and B forms.[Article]
    90. Het gebruik van onverteerbaar zetemeel

    91. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Retrogradation (starch)
      Retrogradation is a reaction that takes place in gelatinized starch when the amylose and amylopectin chains realign themselves, causing the liquid to gel.[Àrticle]
    92. Zetemeel – Nog niet gebruikt

      OTHER
    93. Murphy MM1, Douglass JS, Birkett A. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jan;108(1):67-78. Resistant starch intakes in the United States
      Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch.[Abstract]
    94. REVIEW
    95. Champ MM. J AOAC Int. 2004 May-Jun;87(3):749-55. Physiological aspects of resistant starch and in vivo measurement
      Resistant starch (RS) is the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in the small intestine of healthy individuals. There are a number of RS with different characteristics which may have a different fate in the colon. As a consequence, all RS should not be considered equivalent as far as physiological properties are concerned; indeed, they may have a different impact on colonic health. [Abstract]

    96. .[Abstract]

      Fermenteren

      REVIEW
    1. Nichols AW. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2007 Jul;6(4):269-73. Probiotics and athletic performance: a systematic review
      Probiotics occur naturally in fermented food products such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, cabbage kimchee, and soybean-based miso and natto.[Abstract]
    2. Zuurkool

      Waarom is rauwe zuurkool zo gezond?

      OTHER
    3. Zeng Z1, Lin J, Gong D. J Food Sci. 2009 May-Jul;74(4):M154-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01123.x. Identification of lactic acid bacterial strains with high conjugated linoleic acid-producing ability from natural sauerkraut fermentations
      Natural sauerkraut fermentations contain a great number of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify lactic acid bacterial strains with high conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-producing ability from natural sauerkraut fermentations. Fifteen CLA-producing lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated in the study. [Abstract]
    4. COMPARATIVE
    5. Goldoni JS, Bonassi IA, Conceiçäo FA. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1983 Mar;33(1):45-56. Comparative study of vitamin C of cabbage cultivars (Brassica oleraceae L., var. capitata L.), before and after their processing in sauerkraut
      vitamin C content in cabbages ranged from 12.0 to 112.5 mg/100g. In sauerkrauts, levels ranged from 5.8 to 52.0 mg/100g, and in sauerkraut juices, ascorbic acid ranged from 2.1 to 48.8 mg/100g. Vitamin C retention percentage in sauerkraut and in sauerkraut juice, ranged between 61.9% and 100.0%.[Abstract]
    6. REVIEW
    7. Swain MR1, Anandharaj M1, Ray RC2, Parveen Rani R3. Biotechnol Res Int. 2014;2014:250424. doi: 10.1155/2014/250424. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics
      Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits.[Article]
    8. OTHER
    9. Xiong T1, Song S, Huang X, Feng C, Liu G, Huang J, Xie M. J Food Sci. 2013 Jan;78(1):M84-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.03003.x. Screening and identification of functional Lactobacillus specific for vegetable fermentation
      The selected LAB strains showed excellent tolerance to high concentrations of bile salt and acids. They can also survive passage through the simulated gastric fluid and may be able to reach to the intestine.[Abstract]
    10. OTHER
    11. Yu Z1, Zhang X, Li S, Li C, Li D, Yang Z. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Mar;29(3):489-98. doi: 10.1007/s11274-012-1202-3. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Chinese sauerkraut
      Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated and identified from naturally-fermented Chinese sauerkraut were examined in vitro for potential probiotic properties and in vivo for cholesterol-lowering effect in mice. Among 7 isolated L. plantarum strains, strains S2-5 and S4-1 were found to possess desirable probiotic properties including ability to survive at pH 2.0 for 60 min, tolerate pancreatin and bile salts, adhere to Caco-2 cells, produce high ?-galactosidase activity and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157 and Shigella flexneri CMCC(B).[Abstract]
    12. MICROBIOTAOTHER
    13. Plengvidhya V1, Breidt F Jr, Lu Z, Fleming HP. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Dec;73(23):7697-702. DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations
      Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. [Article]
    14. OTHER
    15. Harris LJ1, Fleming HP, Klaenhammer TR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 May;58(5):1477-83. Characterization of two nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation
      Two Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains, NCK400 and LJH80, isolated from a commercial sauerkraut fermentation were shown to produce nisin. [Article]
    16. Hoe wordt zuurkool gemaakt?

      FASESWIKI
    17. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Fermentation
      homolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid exclusively heterolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid as well as other acids and alcohols.[Article]
    18. OTHER
    19. Kenneth Todar, PhD Lactic Acid Bacteria (page 2)
      Based on sugar fermentation patterns, two broad metabolic categories of LAB exist: homofermentative and heterofermentative. The first category, homofermentative LAB, includes some lactobacilli and most species of enterococci, lactococci, pediococci, streptococci, tetragenococci, and vagococci, that ferment hexoses by the Embden-Meyerhof (E-M) pathway. The second category, heterofermentative LAB, includes leuconostocs, some lactobacilli, oenococci, and weissella species. The apparent difference on the enzyme level between these two categories is the presence or absence of the key cleavage enzymes of the E-M pathway (fructose 1,6-diphosphate) and the PK pathway (phosphoketolase).[Article]
    20. OTHER
    21. Fleming HP1, McFeeters RF, Humphries EG. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1988 Feb 20;31(3):189-97. A fermentor for study of sauerkraut fermentation
      Fermentations exhibited two distinct stages, the first one gaseous and the second non-gaseous. The gaseous stage was characterized by rapid CO(2) and acid production due to growth by hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria with resultant gas entrapment within the sauerkraut bed and a rise in liquid level. Also, rapid disappearance of fructose and rapid appearance of mannitol occurred during this stage. The nongaseous stage was characterized by growth of homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria with little or no CO(2) production and a gradual increase in lactic acid until all fermentable sugars were metabolized. Nitrogen purging appeared to offer several potential advantages, including a means for brine circulation, removal of CO(2) from the brine, and anaerobiosis to ensure retention of ascorbic acid, desirable color, and other oxygen-sensitive traits in sauerkraut.[Abstract]
    22. OTHER
    23. Lu Z1, Breidt F, Plengvidhya V, Fleming HP. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Jun;69(6):3192-202. Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations
      The process is characterized by an initial heterofermentative stage, followed by a homofermentative stage. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiates the fermentation and quickly predominates the early stage of the fermentation because it is present at an initially higher number (approximately 103 CFU/ml) and has a shorter generation time at 18°C (the typical temperature of sauerkraut fermentation) than most other epiphytic LAB. The quality characteristics of sauerkraut are largely dependent upon the growth of this species. Between 3 and 7 days after the start of the fermentation, heterofermentative Leuconostoc species are usually succeeded by the more acid-tolerant homofermentative Lactobacillus species, due to the accumulation of lactic acid to 1% (wt/vol) or more and the decrease in pH below 4.5. Lactobacillus plantarum completes the fermentation, with a final pH of approximately 3.5 .[Article]
    24. STARTEROTHER
    25. Peñas E1, Frias J, Sidro B, Vidal-Valverde C. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Mar 24;58(6):3549-57. doi: 10.1021/jf903739a. Chemical evaluation and sensory quality of sauerkrauts obtained by natural and induced fermentations at different NaCl levels from Brassica oleracea Var. capitata Cv. Bronco grown in eastern Spain. Effect of storage
      These results suggest than low-salted sauerkraut produced with L. mesenteroides provided highly beneficial antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds and low sodium content, which is in accordance with the general trend in industrialized countries of reducing the salt level of foods to prevent cardiovascular diseases.[Abstract]
    26. OTHER
    27. ain Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides LMG 7954. J Food Sci. 2011 Mar;76(2):M124-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.02030.x. Improved sauerkraut production with probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides LMG 7954
      Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides LMG 7954 were applied for the controlled fermentation of cabbage heads. The starter cultures applied for cabbage heads fermentation allowed lowering of NaCl concentrations from 4.0% to 2.5% (w/v), considerably accelerated fermentation process by 14 d, and improved the product quality.[Abstract]
    28. Zuurkool – nog niet gebruikt

      OTHER
    29. Barrangou R1, Yoon SS, Breidt Jr F Jr, Fleming HP, Klaenhammer TR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Nov;68(11):5452-8. Characterization of six Leuconostoc fallax bacteriophages isolated from an industrial sauerkraut fermentation
      DNA fingerprinting showed that all six phages were genetically distinct. These results revealed for the first time the existence of bacteriophages that are active against L. fallax and confirmed the presence and diversity of bacteriophages in a sauerkraut fermentation.[Article]
    30. OTHER
    31. What Makes Bacteriophage Safe?
      The vast majority of phages, so far as virologists understand, are incapable of harming humans. This is because (i) not all phages are temperate, that is, able to establish “lysogenic” relationships with bacteria, which are symbioses in which the chromosome of a temperate phage becomes integrated into the chromosome of a bacterium.; (ii) relatively few temperate phages have been shown to cause bacterial lysogens to display phage-coded bacterial virulence factors (160); (iii) the species these phages are capable of infecting (their host range) does not include humans; (iv) many or most of these phages display limited host ranges even among bacteria and therefore, unless specifically targeted, may be incapable of infecting the bacteria making up the typical human normal flora; (v) most of these phages are not even capable of penetrating to the bulk of normal flora—i.e., that found in the alimentary canal—due to the protective action of gastric juices and intestinal proteases, the protein-digesting enzymes; (vi) even given penetration to and infection of normal body bacteria, many phages, such as those incapable of establishing lysogenic relationships with bacteria, do not facilitate changes in bacteria phenotypes that result in changes to bacterial virulence; and (vii) given an absence of bacterial infection there is no evidence that natural bacteriophages otherwise serve as anything other than benign—and transient—components of normal flora .[Article]
    32. Kefir

      Melk Kefir

      REVIEW
    33. de Oliveira Leite AM1, Miguel MA, Peixoto RS, Rosado AS, Silva JT, Paschoalin VM. Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Oct 30;44(2):341-9. doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822013000200001. eCollection 2013. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage
      Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19(th) century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. [Article]
    34. OTHER
    35. Lopitz-Otsoa F1, Rementeria A, Elguezabal N, Garaizar J.`Rev Iberoam Micol. 2006 Jun;23(2):67-74. Kefir: a symbiotic yeasts-bacteria community with alleged healthy capabilities
      Kefir is a fermented milk beverage. The milk fermentation is achieved by the of kefir grains, a cluster of microorganisms held together by a polysaccharide matrix named kefiran. Kefir grains are an example of symbiosis between yeast and bacteria.[Article]
    36. REVIEW
    37. Guzel-Seydim ZB1, Kok-Tas T, Greene AK, Seydim AC. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Mar;51(3):261-8. doi: 10.1080/10408390903579029. Review: functional properties of kefir
      Kefir is a unique cultured dairy product due to combined lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation of lactose in milk. Kefir is produced by microbial activity of “kefir grains” which have a relatively stable and specific balance of lactic acid bacteria and yeast.[Abstract]
    38. Water Kefir

      COMPERATIVE
    39. Marsh AJ1, O’Sullivan O, Hill C, Ross RP, Cotter PD. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013 Nov;348(1):79-85. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12248. Sequence-based analysis of the microbial composition of water kefir from multiple sources
      Water kefir is a water-sucrose-based beverage, fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast to produce a final product that is lightly carbonated, acidic and that has a low alcohol percentage. The microorganisms present in water kefir are introduced via water kefir grains, which consist of a polysaccharide matrix in which the microorganisms are embedded. Culture-independent, high-throughput, sequencing-based analyses revealed that the bacterial fraction of each water kefir and grain was dominated by Zymomonas, an ethanol-producing bacterium, which has not previously been detected at such a scale. The other genera detected were representatives of the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Our analysis of the fungal component established that it was comprised of the genera Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora and Lachancea. [Abstract]
    40. OTHER
    41. Laureys D1, De Vuyst L. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Apr;80(8):2564-72. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03978-13. Microbial species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of water kefir fermentation
      Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. [Article]
    42. OTHER
    43. Stadie J1, Gulitz A, Ehrmann MA, Vogel RF. Food Microbiol. 2013 Sep;35(2):92-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2013.03.009. Metabolic activity and symbiotic interactions of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from water kefir
      Water kefir is a mildly sour and alcoholic drink fermented by a stable microbial multispecies community. With its high sugar content and low amino acid concentration water kefir medium represents a demanding habitat. In this ecological niche only well adapted microorganisms which are fit to the consortium are able to grow and mutually provide essential nutrients. [Abstract]
    44. OTHER
    45. Gulitz A1, Stadie J, Ehrmann MA, Ludwig W, Vogel RF. J Appl Microbiol. 2013 Apr;114(4):1082-91. doi: 10.1111/jam.12124. Comparative phylobiomic analysis of the bacterial community of water kefir by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and ARDRA analysis
      The microbiota consisted of different proportions of the genera Lactobacillus (Lact.), Leuconostoc (Leuc.), Acetobacter (Acet.) and Gluconobacter. Surprisingly, varying but consistently high numbers of sequences representing members of the genus Bifidobacterium (Bif.) were found in all kefirs. Whereas part of the bifidobacterial sequences could be assigned to Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum, a majority of sequences identical to each other could not be assigned to any known species. A nearly full-length sequence of the latter exhibited a beyond-species similarity (96.4%) with the sequence from the closest relative species Bif. psychraerophilum. A Bifidobacterium-specific ARDRA analysis reflected the abundance of the novel Bifidobacterium species by revealing its unique MboI restriction profile. Attempts to isolate the bifidobacteria were successful for Bif. psychraerophilum only. The complexity of the water kefir microbiota has been underestimated in previously studies. The occurrence of bifidobacteria as part of the consortium is novel. [Abstract]
    46. Wat zit er in kefir

      OTHER
    47. Kowalczyk M1, Kolakowski P, Radziwill-Bienkowska JM, Szmytkowska A, Bardowski J. J Dairy Res. 2012 Feb;79(1):26-32. doi: 10.1017/S0022029911000677. Cascade cell lyses and DNA extraction for identification of genes and microorganisms in kefir grains
      As much as 50% of the analysed nucleotide sequences showed homology to sequences from bacteria belonging to the Lactobacillus genus. Several sequences were similar to sequences from bacteria representing Lactococcus, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species. Among homologues of yeast proteins were those from Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, several sequences were found to be homologous to sequences from bacteriophages.[Abstract]
    48. OTHER
    49. Diosma G1, Romanin DE, Rey-Burusco MF, Londero A, Garrote GL. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Jan;30(1):43-53. doi: 10.1007/s11274-013-1419-9. Yeasts from kefir grains: isolation, identification, and probiotic characterization
      From 4 milky and 3 sugary kefir grains, 34 yeast strains were isolated and identified by means of classical microbiological and molecular-genetic methods (whole-cell protein pattern, internal-transcribed-spacer amplification, and analysis of restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms). We identified 4 species belonging to 3 genera-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (15 strains), Saccharomyces unisporus (6 strains), Issatchenkia occidentalis (4 strains), and Kluyveromyces marxianus (9 strains)-and selected 13 strains on the basis of resistance to low pH and bile salts.[Abstract]
    50. OTHER
    51. Hong WS1, Chen YP, Chen MJ. J Food Sci. 2010 Oct;75(8):H244-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01787.x. The antiallergic effect of kefir Lactobacilli
      Our data clearly demonstrated the antiallergic activity of kefir LAB, Lactobacillus (L b.) kefiranofaciens M1.[Abstract]
    52. Waarom is Kefir zo gezond

      OTHER
    53. Nielsen B1, Gürakan GC, Unlü G. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2014 Dec;6(3-4):123-35. doi: 10.1007/s12602-014-9168-0. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product
      Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product.[Abstract]
    54. REVIEW
    55. Ahmed Z1, Wang Y, Ahmad A, Khan ST, Nisa M, Ahmad H, Afreen A. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(5):422-34. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2010.540360. Kefir and health: a contemporary perspective
      The nutritional attributes of this self-carbonated beverage are due to presence of vital nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and some nutraceutical components. Antimicrobial activity, better gut health, anticarcinogenic activity, control on serum glucose and cholesterol, control on lactose intolerance and better immune system can be achieved through its regular consumption.[Abstract]
    56. CANCERREVIEW
    57. Guzel-Seydim ZB1, Kok-Tas T, Greene AK, Seydim AC. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Mar;51(3):261-8. doi: 10.1080/10408390903579029. Review: functional properties of kefir
      Kefir is produced by microbial activity of “kefir grains” which have a relatively stable and specific balance of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Due to the claimed health benefits of kefir which include reduction of lactose intolerance symptoms, stimulation of the immune system, lowering cholesterol, and antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties, kefir has become an important functional dairy food and consequently, research on kefir has increased in the past decade.[Abstract]
    58. OTHER
    59. Maalouf K1, Baydoun E, Rizk S. Cancer Manag Res. 2011 Feb 14;3:39-47. doi: 10.2147/CMR.S15109. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes
      Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. In conclusion, kefir is effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Therefore, further in vivo investigation is highly recommended.[Article]
    60. Veiligheid Kefir

      ANIMAL
    61. Diniz Rosa D1, Gouveia Peluzio Mdo C2, Pérez Bueno T3, Vega Cañizares E3, Sánchez Miranda L3, Mancebo Dorbignyi B3, Chong Dubí D3, Espinosa Castaño I3, Marcin Grzes Kowiak L2, Fortes Ferreira CL4. Nutr Hosp. 2014 Jun 1;29(6):1352-9. doi: 10.3305/nh.2014.29.6.7390. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats
      These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned.[Article]
    62. ANIMAL
    63. Owaga EE1, Chen MJ2, Chen WY3, Chen CW4, Hsieh RH5. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Aug;70:157-62. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.005. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats
      In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study.[Abstract]
    64. CASE
    65. MacGregor G1, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J. Postgrad Med J. 2002 Jun;78(920):366-7. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients?
      The administration of Lactobacillus spp as “biotherapy” may be hazardous in such circumstances.[Article]
    66. Kefir: og niet gebruikte artikelen

      OTHER
    67. Lu M1, Wang X1, Sun G1, Qin B1, Xiao J1, Yan S2, Pan Y1, Wang Y1. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 30;9(6):e101387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101387. eCollection 2014. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift
      These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species–Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time.[Article]

    68. .[Abstract]

    Kippensoep

      Weinig wetenschappelijke informatie beschikbaar

      OTHER
    1. Ohry A, Tsafrir J. CMAJ. 1999 Dec 14;161(12):1532-3 Is chicken soup an essential drug?
      In the World Health Organization’s Action Programme on Essential Drugs1 a drug is considered to be essential if it is “as relevant today as it was 20 years ago,” and it is assessed on the basis of 4 principles. The drug must be evidence-based, efficient, flexible and forward looking. We propose here that chicken soup be classified as an essential drug; not only does it comply with these requirements, but it can be considered as relevant today as it was 2000 years ago.[Artcle]
    2. OTHER
    3. World Health Organization 1988 Action Programme on Essential Drugs and Vaccines
      No Abstract Available.[Article]
    4. LETTER
    5. Fred Rosner CMAJ April 4, 2000 vol. 162 no. 7 It’s uncanny
      I read with great interest the suggestion by Abraham Ohry and Jenni Tsafrir that chicken soup be considered an essential drug.1 I endorse this recommendation on the basis of my interpretation of the medical writings of the renowned 12th century physician Moses Maimonides.[Article]
    6. WIKI
    7. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Chicken soup
      Chicken soup has long been touted as a form of folk medicine to treat symptoms of the common cold and related conditions. In 2000, scientists at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha studied the effect of chicken soup on the inflammatory response in vitro.[Abstract]
    8. WIKI
    9. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kippensoep
      De joodse wijsgeer Maimonides beschreef deze soep als geneeskrachtig, hierdoor staat kippensoep ook bekend als joodse penicilline.[Article]
    10. OTHER
    11. Fred Rosner Director, Department of Medicine Queens Hospital Center Professor of Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine The Life of Moses Maimonides, a Prominent Medieval Physician
      Moses Maimonides was the most prominent Jewish medieval physician. [Article]
    12. COMPERATIVE
    13. Rennard BO1, Ertl RF, Gossman GL, Robbins RA, Rennard SI. Chest. 2000 Oct;118(4):1150-7. Chicken soup inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro
      Chicken soup has long been regarded as a remedy for symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. As it is likely that the clinical similarity of the diverse infectious processes that can result in “colds” is due to a shared inflammatory response, an effect of chicken soup in mitigating inflammation could account for its attested benefits. The present study, therefore, suggests that chicken soup may contain a number of substances with beneficial medicinal activity. A mild anti-inflammatory effect could be one mechanism by which the soup could result in the mitigation of symptomatic upper respiratory tract infections. [Article]
    14. OTHER
    15. Hopkins AB. Nurse Pract. 2003 Jun;28(6):16. Chicken soup cure may not be a myth
      Chicken soup may provide relief from the symptoms of the cold season through neutrophilic action. There are an estimated 20 to 50 million influenza virus infections annually in the United States, resulting in 24 million patient visits, 300,000 hospitalizations, and 20,000 to 50,000 deaths. 1 The synergistic properties of chicken soup may decrease the inflammatory response associated with viral illnesses.[Abstract]
    16. Mercola en Weston A. Price over kippensoep

      OTHER
    17. Mercola.com December 16, 2013 Bone Broth—One of Your Most Healing Diet Staples
      According to an old South American proverb, “good broth will resurrect the dead.” While that’s undoubtedly an exaggeration, it speaks to the value placed on this wholesome food, going back through the annals of time.[Article]
    18. OTHER
    19. Weston A Price June 18, 2003 by Kaayla Daniel Why Broth is Beautiful: Essential Roles for Proline, Glycine and Gelatin
      Many studies now confirm what Grandma always knew–that broth made from bones is a great remedy, a tonic for the sick, a strengthener for athletes, a digestive aid, a healing elixir. And unlike bitter medicines, broth can be incorporated into delicious soups, stews and sauces.[Article]
    20. OTHER
    21. Posted on October 19, 2011 by Sarah Pope WAPF Stocks and Soups Video by Sarah Pope
      Most people would agree with the old adage that chicken soup is good for the soul as well as for colds and flu. It’s also a great remedy for digestive problems, arthritis, pain, and recovery from all sorts of illness.[Article]
    22. OTHER
    23. Posted on September 22, 2004 by Jordan S. Rubin, NMD, CNC WAPF How To Restore Digestive Health
      Stock and soups made from the bones of chicken, turkey, duck, beef, lamb and fish are anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and contain nutrients which help build the integrity of the digestive tract. When a person is suffering from a digestive disorder, a soup based on bone stock can bring fast relief.[Article]
    24. Kippensoep verbetert de barrière functie van de darmen

      REVIEW
    25. Tlaskalová-Hogenová H1, Stepánková R, Hudcovic T, Tucková L, Cukrowska B, Lodinová-Zádníková R, Kozáková H, Rossmann P, Bártová J, Sokol D, Funda DP, Borovská D, Reháková Z, Sinkora J, Hofman J, Drastich P, Kokesová A. Immunol Lett. 2004 May 15;93(2-3):97-108. Commensal bacteria (normal microflora), mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
      The mucosal immune system has developed specialised regulatory, anti-inflammatory mechanisms for eliminating or tolerating non-dangerous, food and airborne antigens and commensal micro-organisms (oral, mucosal tolerance). However, at the same time the mucosal immune system must provide local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens). [Abstract]
    26. REVIEW
    27. Groschwitz KR1, Hogan SP. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Jul;124(1):3-20; quiz 21-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.05.038. Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis
      The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that constitutes the largest and most important barrier against the external environment. It acts as a selectively permeable barrier, permitting the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water while maintaining an effective defense against intraluminal toxins, antigens, and enteric flora. [Article]
    28. REVIEW
    29. Hollander D. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 1999 Oct;1(5):410-6. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders
      A major task of the intestine is to form a defensive barrier to prevent absorption of damaging substances from the external environment. This protective function of the intestinal mucosa is called permeability. Clinicians can use inert, nonmetabolized sugars such as mannitol, rhamnose, or lactulose to measure the permeability barrier or the degree of leakiness of the intestinal mucosa.[Abstract]
    30. OTHER
    31. Hold GL. Gut. 2014 Jan;63(1):5-6. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-304969 Western lifestyle: a ‘master’ manipulator of the intestinal microbiota?
      Evidence from human studies has shown that Western diet induces dysbiosis and contributes to endotoxaemia, most likely caused by impairment of intestinal permeability and barrier function.[Article]
    32. Glutamine

      NON ESSENTIALREVIEW
    33. van der Hulst RR1, von Meyenfeldt MF, Soeters PB. Nutrition. 1996 Nov-Dec;12(11-12 Suppl):S78-81. Glutamine: an essential amino acid for the gut
      Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid which is produced in sufficient amount by the healthy human body. During several conditions a lack of glutamine may occur. This will result in functional disturbances of the immune system and/or the gut.[Abstract]
    34. OTHER
    35. Wang B1, Wu G, Zhou Z, Dai Z, Sun Y, Ji Y, Li W, Wang W, Liu C, Han F, Wu Z. Glutamine and intestinal barrier functionAmino Acids. 2014 Jun 26.
      Growing evidence supports the notion that glutamine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for neonates and a conditionally essential amino acid for adults. Thus, as a functional amino acid with multiple key physiological roles, glutamine holds great promise in protecting the gut from atrophy and injury under various stress conditions in mammals and other animals.[Abstract]
    36. BARRIER FUNCTIONRCT
    37. Lima AA1, Anstead GM2, Zhang Q3, Figueiredo ÍL1, Soares AM1, Mota RM1, Lima NL1, Guerrant RL1, Oriá RB1. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2014;69(4):225-33. Effects of glutamine alone or in combination with zinc and vitamin A on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones in Brazilian shantytown children
      Either glutamine alone or all nutrients combined prevented disruption of the intestinal barrier function, as measured by the percentage of lactulose urinary excretion and the lactulose:mannitol absorption ratio.[Article]
    38. REVIEW
    39. Rapin JR1, Wiernsperger N. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010 Jun;65(6):635-43. doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322010000600012. Possible links between intestinal permeability and food processing: A potential therapeutic niche for glutamine
      Increased intestinal permeability should be largely improved by dietary addition of compounds, such as glutamine or curcumin, which both have the mechanistic potential to inhibit the inflammation and oxidative stress linked to tight junction opening.[Article]
    40. CLINICAL
    41. Quan ZF1, Yang C, Li N, Li JS. World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul 1;10(13):1992-4. Effect of glutamine on change in early postoperative intestinal permeability and its relation to systemic inflammatory response
      Gut is one of the sources of systemic inflammatory response in abdominal postoperative patients and glutamine can decrease intestinal permeability, maintain intestinal barrier and attenuate systemic inflammatory response in early postoperative patients.[Article]
    42. REVIEW
    43. Wischmeyer PE. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Sep;9(5):607-12. Glutamine: role in gut protection in critical illness
      In laboratory and clinical settings, glutamine can attenuate gut permeability following critical illness and injury. [Abstract]
    44. REVIEW
    45. Coëffier M1, Déchelotte P. Nutr Rev. 2005 Feb;63(2):65-9. The role of glutamine in intensive care unit patients: mechanisms of action and clinical outcome
      Patients in the intensive care unit are at high risk of glutamine depletion and subsequent complications. Several controlled studies and a meta-analysis have concluded that glutamine supplementation has beneficial effects on the clinical outcome of critically ill and surgical patients.[Abstract]
    46. Veiligheid

      ANIMAL
    47. Monro JA1, Leon R, Puri BK. Med Hypotheses. 2013 Apr;80(4):389-90. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2012.12.026. The risk of lead contamination in bone broth diets
      The preparation and consumption of bone broth is being increasingly recommended to patients, for example as part of the gut and psychology syndrome (GAPS) diet for autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia, depression and schizophrenia, and as part of the paleolithic diet. However, bones are known to sequester the heavy metal lead, contamination with which is widespread throughout the modern environment.[Abstract]
    48. OTHER
    49. Chris Kresser Bone Broth and Lead Toxicity: Should You Be Concerned?
      If drinking water consistently throughout the day with lead levels of 15 µg/L (ppb) does not pose a problem for human adults (and children with the exception of infants drinking formula), then why would drinking 2-3 cups of bone broth with lead levels of 9.5 µ/L pose a problem? I don’t think it would.[Article]
    50. OTHER
    51. Bone Broth and Lead Contamination: A Very Flawed Study in Medical Hypotheses Posted on March 12, 2013 by Kaayla Daniel WAPF Bone Broth and Lead Contamination: A Very Flawed Study in Medical Hypotheses
      Chris Kresser has pointed out in a widely read blog11 that the levels of lead found in the broth tested for this study are lower than the EPA limit for lead in tap water, which is 15 ug/L.12 That, of course, begs the question of whether the level of contamination permitted in tap water is acceptable. Many health conscious people would agree that it is not, and recommend good quality water filters to purify our tap water. In any case, as Kresser has pointed out, a cup or two of broth a day would go well under the EPA level for a day’s water consumption.[Àrticle]
    52. REVIEW
    53. Holecek M. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2013 Sep;37(5):607-16. doi: 10.1177/0148607112460682. Side effects of long-term glutamine supplementation
      It is concluded that enhanced intake of GLN has substantial side effects, and long-term studies should be performed to justify chronic consumption of a GLN-enriched diet.[Abstract]
    54. Nog niet gebruikte artikelen – kippensoep

    55. Therapeutic Efficacy of Chicken Soup
      No Abstract Available.[Article]
    56. OTHER
    57. Scaldaferri F1, Lopetuso LR1, Petito V1, Cufino V2, Bilotta M3, Arena V2, Stigliano E2, Maulucci G4, Papi M4, Emiliana CM5, Poscia A6, Franceschi F1, Delogu G3, Sanguinetti M3, Spirito MD4, Sgambato A2, Gasbarrini A1. United European Gastroenterol J. 2014 Apr;2(2):113-22. doi: 10.1177/2050640614520867. Gelatin tannate ameliorates acute colitis in mice by reinforcing mucus layer and modulating gut microbiota composition: Emerging role for ‘gut barrier protectors’ in IBD?
      Gelatin tannate decreased the severity of colitis. Acting as a gut barrier enhancer, it re-establishes gut homeostasis by recovering intestinal permeability and mucus layer integrity in gut mucosa and by modulating microbiota composition.[Article]
    58. OTHER
    59. Parisius LM1, Stock-Schröer B, Berger S, Hermann K, Joos S. BMC Fam Pract. 2014 Jun 11;15:116. doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-116. Use of home remedies: a cross-sectional survey of patients in Germany
      The most frequently used home remedies were steam-inhalation, hot lemon drink, honey, chamomile tea and chicken soup. 80% of respondents tried home remedies before pharmaceutical options. Information about home remedies was most commonly gained from family members, rather than from written guides, media or GPs.[Article]

    60. .[Abstract]
    61. OTHER
    62. Chen HL1, Tung YT, Chuang CH, Tu MY, Tsai TC, Chang SY, Chen CM. Osteoporos Int. 2014 Oct 3. Kefir improves bone mass and microarchitecture in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis
      The protective effect of kefir in the OVX rat model may occur through increasing intracellular calcium uptake through the TRPV6 calcium channe.[Abstract]

    Voeding en vaginale infectie

      OTHER
    1. Neggers YH1, Nansel TR, Andrews WW, Schwebke JR, Yu KF, Goldenberg RL, Klebanoff MA. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):2128-33. Dietary intake of selected nutrients affects bacterial vaginosis in women
      We conclude that increased dietary fat intake is associated with increased risk of BV and severe BV, whereas increased intake of folate, vitamin A, and calcium may decrease the risk of severe BV.[Article]
    2. OTHER
    3. Ahluwalia N1, Grandjean H. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):1997-8. Nutrition, an under-recognized factor in bacterial vaginosis
      Suboptimal nutrition can alter immune function and increase susceptibility to infections. In this issue of The Journal of Nutrition, Neggers et al. (3) report on nutritional factors that may contribute to increased bacterial vaginosis. [Article]
    4. OTHER
    5. Reed BD1, Slattery ML, French TK. J Fam Pract. 1989 Nov;29(5):509-15. The association between dietary intake and reported history of Candida vulvovaginitis
      Results indicate associations between total caloric intake, carbohydrates, and fiber and a history of Candida vulvovaginitis.[Abstract]
    6. Hygiene

      REVIEW
    7. Rook GA. Dig Dis. 2011;29(2):144-53. doi: 10.1159/000323877. Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system
      The current ‘Darwinian’ synthesis of the hygiene (or ‘Old Friends’) hypothesis suggests that the increase in chronic inflammatory disorders that started in Europe in the mid-19th century and progressed until the late 20th century is at least partly attributable to immunodysregulation resulting from lack of exposure to microorganisms that were tasked by co-evolutionary processes with establishing the ‘normal’ background levels of immunoregulation, a role that they perform in concert with the normal microbiota. This is an example of ‘evolved dependence’. The relevant organisms co-evolved with mammals, already accompanied early hominids in the Paleolithic era and are associated with animals, mud and faeces. The range of chronic inflammatory disorders affected may be larger than had been assumed (allergies, autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, but also coeliac disease, food allergy, vascular disease, some cancers, and depression/anxiety when accompanied by raised inflammatory cytokines)[Abstract]

    Behandeling vaginale infectie prebiotica

      CLINICAL
    1. Costabile A1, Klinder A, Fava F, Napolitano A, Fogliano V, Leonard C, Gibson GR, Tuohy KM. Br J Nutr. 2008 Jan;99(1):110-20. Whole-grain wheat breakfast cereal has a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study
      Daily consumption of WG wheat exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota composition.[Abstract]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Gibson GR1, Roberfroid MB. J Nutr. 1995 Jun;125(6):1401-12. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics
      Because the human gut microbiota can play a major role in host health, there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the gut flora towards a potentially more remedial community. Attempts have been made to increase bacterial groups such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus that are perceived as exerting health-promoting properties. Probiotics, defined as microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, have been used to change the composition of colonic microbiota. However, such changes may be transient, and the implantation of exogenous bacteria therefore becomes limited. In contrast, prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacterial species already resident in the colon, and thus attempt to improve host health.[Article]

    4. .[Abstract]

    5. .[Abstract]

    Behandeling vaginale infectie probiotica

      REVIEW
    1. Lamont RF1, Sobel JD, Akins RA, Hassan SS, Chaiworapongsa T, Kusanovic JP, Romero R. BJOG. 2011 Apr;118(5):533-49. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02840.x. The vaginal microbiome: new information about genital tract flora using molecular based techniques
      Vaginal microbiome studies provide information that may change the way we define vaginal flora. Normal flora appears dominated by one or two species of Lactobacillus. Significant numbers of healthy women lack appreciable numbers of vaginal lactobacilli.[Abstract]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Verstraelen H. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2008;70(3):147-74. Cutting edge: the vaginal microflora and bacterial vaginosis
      Under physiological conditions, the vaginal primarily harbours lactobacilli which ideally confer in mutualism with the vaginal epithelium colonisation resistance to other micro-organisms, thereby preventing ascending or systemic infection. Albeit only a few Lactobacillus species constitute the vaginal microflora, huge species- and strain-specific differences occur however, and these differences account for a wide variability in the intrinsic capability of the Lactobacillus microflora to maintain the vaginal ecosystem. Hence, among a substantial proportion of women, the picture of lactobacilli-driven mutualism is actually less ideal than one may assume. As the vagina is incessantly subjected to cyclic changes as well as behavioural exposures that may challenge the perpetuation of the Lactobacillus microflora, the intrinsic stability of the resident microflora is paramount to women’s health. Considering the close concordance between the rectal and vaginal lactobacilli, future research may benefit from the study of food, oral, and intestinal microbiology in relation to the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota. Loss of the hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli accompanied by massive anaerobic overgrowth is observed with bacterial vaginosis. Molecular studies of the bacterial vaginosis microflora have recently revealed a tremendous species variability further documenting the complex polymicrobial nature of this condition. Emerging issues include the predominance of G. vaginalis, a normal microflora constituent possibly eliciting a host of virulence mechanisms at increasing concentrations through quorum sensing, the associated abundance of A. vaginae as a rather specific marker of therapy failure and disease persistence or recurrence, and the discovery of an adherent, metronidazole-resistant biofilm consisting of the latter two species.[Abstract]
    4. OTHER
    5. Wagner RD1, Johnson SJ. J Biomed Sci. 2012 Jun 20;19:58. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-58. Probiotic lactobacillus and estrogen effects on vaginal epithelial gene expression responses to Candida albicans
      Vaginal epithelial cells have receptors, signal transduction mechanisms, and cytokine secretion capabilities to recruit host defenses against Candida albicans infections. This research evaluates how probiotic lactobacilli affect the defensive epithelial response. The results suggest that C. albicans infection induces pro-inflammatory responses in vaginal epithelial cells, and estrogen and lactobacilli suppress expression of NF-?B-related inflammatory genes. Probiotic lactobacilli may induce IL-1? and IL-1? expression by an alternate signal transduction pathway, such as MAPK/AP-1. Activation of alternate signaling mechanisms by lactobacilli to modify epithelial cell cytokine production may be a mechanism for probiotic modulation of morbidity in vulvovaginal candidiasis.[Article]
    6. REVIEW
    7. Homayouni A1, Bastani P, Ziyadi S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Ghalibaf M, Mortazavian AM, Mehrabany EV. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2014 Jan;18(1):79-86. doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e31829156ec. Effects of probiotics on the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis: a review
      Although the results of different studies are controversial, most studies have been in favor of the probiotics in the prevention or treatment of BV, and no adverse effects have been reported. Therefore, it may be helpful to recommend daily consumption of probiotic products to improve public health among women.[Abstract]
    8. OTHER
    9. Vicariotto F1, Del Piano M, Mogna L, Mogna G. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;46 Suppl:S73-80. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3182684d71. Effectiveness of the association of 2 probiotic strains formulated in a slow release vaginal product, in women affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis: a pilot study
      Some strains are also able to exert additional and more focused antagonistic activities mediated by specific molecules such as hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. For example, Lactobacillus fermentum LF5 (CNCM I-789) was successfully tested in 4 human trials involving a total of 340 women reporting VVC at enrollment. The administration of the product ActiCand 30 was able to significantly solve Candida yeast symptoms after 28 days in 26 patients out of 30 (corresponding to 86.6%, P<0.001). At the end of the second month, recurrences were recorded, albeit not particularly serious, in only 3 out of 26 patients (11.5%, P=0.083) who were found to have fully healed at the end of the first month of treatment. This is a further confirmation of the long-term barrier effect exerted by the product. [Abstract]
    10. OTHER
    11. Sudha MR1, Maurya AK. Benef Microbes. 2012 Jun 1;3(2):151-5. doi: 10.3920/BM2011.0054. Effect of oral supplementation of the probiotic capsule UB-01BV in the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis
      Therefore, the results of the present study provide the first preliminary evidence that the potential probiotic capsule UB-01BV can exert a significant reduction in vaginal infection.[Abstract]

    12. .[Abstract]

    MALT

      OTHER
    1. McDermott MR, Bienenstock J. J Immunol. 1979 May;122(5):1892-8. Evidence for a common mucosal immunologic system. I. Migration of B immunoblasts into intestinal, respiratory, and genital tissues
      These data support the concept of a common mucosal immunologic system.[Abstract]
    2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
      The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) (also called mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) is the diffusion system of small concentrations of lymphoid tissue found in various sites of the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, breast, lung, salivary glands, eye, and skin. MALT is populated by lymphocytes such as T cells and B cells, as well as plasma cells and macrophages, each of which is well situated to encounter antigens passing through the mucosal epithelium. In the case of intestinal MALT, M cells are also present, which sample antigen from the lumen and deliver it to the lymphoid tissue.[Article]
    3. OTHER
    4. Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al. New York: Garland Science; 2001. The mucosal immune system
      A second important point to bear in mind when considering the immunobiology of mucosal surfaces is that the gut acts as a portal of entry to a vast array of foreign antigens in the form of food. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to avoid a vigorous immune response to food antigens on the one hand and, on the other, to detect and kill pathogenic organisms gaining entry through the gut.[Book]
    5. BOOK
    6. Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al. New York: Garland Science; 2001. The mucosal immune system
      In addition to the organized lymphoid tissue in which induction of immune responses occurs within the mucosal immune system, small foci of lymphocytes and plasma cells are scattered widely throughout the lamina propria of the gut wall. These represent the effector cells of the gut mucosal immune system. The life history of these cells is as follows. As naive lymphocytes, they emerge from the primary lymphoid organs of bone marrow and thymus to enter the inductive lymphoid tissue of the mucosal immune system via the bloodstream. They may encounter foreign antigens presented within the organized lymphoid tissue of the mucosal immune system and become activated to effector status. From these sites, the activated lymphocytes traffic via the lymphatics draining the intestines, pass through mesenteric lymph nodes, and eventually wind up in the thoracic duct, from where they circulate in the blood throughout the entire body (Fig. 10.18). They reenter the mucosal tissues from the small blood vessels lining the gut wall and other sites of MALT, such as the respiratory or reproductive mucosa.[Book]
    7. OTHER
    8. Smart Nutrition Test For Secretory IgA (sIgA)
      Secretory IgA is found in saliva in the mouth, throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in mucous secretions throughout the body. SIgA provides our first line of defence against bacteria, food residue, fungus, parasites and viruses. Low levels of SIgA make us more susceptible to infection and may be a fundamental cause of asthma, autoimmune conditions, coeliac, chronic infections, crohns, candidiasis, food intolerances and allergies, autism and other behavioural problems. Very high levels are found in people who have chronic infections and whose immune system is overloaded. Lifestyle and nutritional factors can also influence sIgA levels.[Article]
    9. OTHER
    10. Immunology Assesments
      Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity and is produced in greater quatities than all other types of antibody combined. In its secretory form, sIgA is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions and provides protection against potentially pathogenic microbes, due to its ability to resist degredation by enzymes and survive in harsh environments such as GI and respiratory tracts. sIgA is the first line of defence against bacteria, food residues, yeast, parasites and viruses, and imbalances may provide the link between gut imbalances and systemic illness.[Article]
    11. REVIEW
    12. Mantis NJ1, Rol N, Corthésy B. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 Nov;4(6):603-11. doi: 10.1038/mi.2011.41. Secretory IgA’s complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut
      Secretory IgA (SIgA) serves as the first line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms.[Article]
    13. REVIEW
    14. Kamada N1, Seo SU, Chen GY, Núñez G. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 May;13(5):321-35. doi: 10.1038/nri3430. Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease
      The mammalian intestine is colonized by trillions of microorganisms, most of which are bacteria that have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship. The collection of microbial populations that reside on and in the host is commonly referred to as the microbiota. A principal function of the microbiota is to protect the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens and potentially harmful indigenous microorganisms via several mechanisms, which include direct competition for limited nutrients and the modulation of host immune responses. Conversely, pathogens have developed strategies to promote their replication in the presence of competing microbiota. Breakdown of the normal microbial community increases the risk of pathogen infection, the overgrowth of harmful pathobionts and inflammatory disease.[Article]
    15. REVIEW
    16. Nishio J1, Honda K. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Nov;69(21):3635-50. doi: 10.1007/s00018-012-0993-6. Immunoregulation by the gut microbiota
      The human intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to commensal microbiota. Since the gut microbiota is beneficial to the host, hosts have evolved intestine-specific immune systems to co-exist with the microbiota. On the other hand, the intestinal microbiota actively regulates the host’s immune system, and recent studies have revealed that specific commensal bacterial species induce the accumulation of specific immune cell populations. The immune cells induced by the gut microbiota likely contribute to intestinal homeostasis and influence systemic immunity in the host.[Abstract]
    17. OTHER
    18. Sorini C1, Falcone M. Am J Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Jun 15;2(2):156-71. Shaping the (auto)immune response in the gut: the role of intestinal immune regulation in the prevention of type 1 diabetes
      There is increasing evidence that environmental factors acting at the intestinal level, with a special regard to the diverse bacterial species that constitute the microbiota, influence the course of autoimmune diseases in tissues outside the intestine both in humans and in preclinical models.[Article]
    19. REVIEW
    20. Vaarala O. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2011 Aug;18(4):241-7. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283488218. The gut as a regulator of early inflammation in type 1 diabetes
      The gut modulation affecting permeability, inflammation and microbiota is evidently associated with the regulation of the inflammation leading to beta-cell destruction. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, the recent research points out the lines of approach for the prevention of T1D.[Abstract]
    21. REVIEW
    22. Russell SL1, Finlay BB. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov;28(6):563-9. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e3283573017. The impact of gut microbes in allergic diseases
      In the last year, technological advances have provided us with a better understanding of the gut microbiome in healthy and allergic individuals. Recent studies have identified the associations between particular gut microbes and different disease phenotypes, as well as identified immune cells and their mediators involved in allergy development. This research has provided a number of host and microbe targets that may be used to develop novel therapies suitable for the treatment or prevention of allergic diseases.[Abstract]
    23. REVIEW
    24. Round JL1, O’Connell RM, Mazmanian SK. J Autoimmun. 2010 May;34(3):J220-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2009.11.007. Coordination of tolerogenic immune responses by the commensal microbiota
      All mammals are born ignorant to the existence of micro-organisms. Soon after birth, however, every mammal begins a lifelong association with a multitude of microbes that lay residence on the skin, mouth, vaginal mucosa and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Approximately 500-1000 different species of microbes have highly evolved to occupy these bodily niches, with the highest density and diversity occurring within the intestine. These organisms play a vital role in mammalian nutrient breakdown and provide resistance to colonization by pathogenic micro-organisms. More recently, however, studies have demonstrated that the microbiota can have a profound and long-lasting effect on the development of our immune system both inside and outside the intestine. While our immune system has evolved to recognize and eradicate foreign entities, it tolerates the symbiotic micro-organisms of the intestine. How and why this tolerance occurs has remained unclear. Here we present evidence that the commensal microbes of the intestine actively induce tolerant responses from the host that coordinate healthy immune responses. Potentially, disruption of this dialogue between the host and microbe can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or Type I diabetes (TID).[Article]
    25. REVIEW
    26. Geuking MB, Köller Y, Rupp S, McCoy KD. Gut Microbes. 2014 May 1;5(3):411-418. The interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system
      The impact of the gut microbiota on immune homeostasis within the gut and, importantly, also at systemic sites has gained tremendous research interest over the last few years. The intestinal microbiota is an integral component of a fascinating ecosystem that interacts with and benefits its host on several complex levels to achieve a mutualistic relationship. Host-microbial homeostasis involves appropriate immune regulation within the gut mucosa to maintain a healthy gut while preventing uncontrolled immune responses against the beneficial commensal microbiota potentially leading to chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).[Article]
    27. REVIEW
    28. Gutzeit C1, Magri G, Cerutti A. Immunol Rev. 2014 Jul;260(1):76-85. doi: 10.1111/imr.12189. Intestinal IgA production and its role in host-microbe interaction
      Complex and diverse communities of bacteria establish mutualistic and symbiotic relationships with the gut after birth. The intestinal immune system responds to bacterial colonization by acquiring a state of hypo-responsiveness against commensals and active readiness against pathogens. The resulting homeostatic balance involves a continuous dialog between the microbiota and lymphocytes with the intermediation of epithelial and dendritic cells. This dialog causes massive production of immunoglobulin A (IgA), a non-inflammatory antibody specialized in mucosal protection.[Article]
    29. OTHER
    30. Alexander KL1, Targan SR, Elson CO 3rd. Immunol Rev. 2014 Jul;260(1):206-20. doi: 10.1111/imr.12180. Microbiota activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity
      The human host has coevolved with the collective of bacteria species, termed microbiota, in a complex fashion that affects both innate and adaptive immunity.[Artcle]
    31. OTHER
    32. Drasar BS, Crowther JS, Goddard P, Hawksworth G, Hill MJ, Peach S, Williams RE, Renwick A. Proc Nutr Soc. 1973 Sep;32(2):49-52. The relation between diet and the gut microflora in man
      The type of diet and frequency of feeding influences the distribution of bacteria within the small intestine of both man and animals.[Article]

    33. .[Abstract]

    34. .[Abstract]
    35. YOUTUBE

      YOUTUBE
    36. Albert Einstein College of Medicine Immunology Lecture Mini-Course
      Mucosal Immunity.” Harris Goldstein, M.D., director, Einstein-Montefiore Center for AIDS Research, professor of pediatrics and microbiology & immunology and the Charles Michael Chair in Autoimmune Diseases, delivers a mini-course that provides a comprehensive overview in basic immunology for graduate and medical students and for anyone interested in understanding how the immune system works.[Movie]
    37. YOUTUBE
    38. Nature video Immunology in the Gut Mucosa
      The gut mucosa hosts the body’s largest population of immune cells. Nature Immunology in collaboration with Arkitek Studios have produced an animation unravelling the complexities of mucosal immunology in health and disease.[Movie]

    Risico factoren


    1. .[Abstract]

    2. .[Abstract]

    Pathologie: algemeen

      Candida komt in elke darm voor

      REVIEW
    1. Cheng SC1, Joosten LA, Kullberg BJ, Netea MG. Infect Immun. 2012 Apr;80(4):1304-13. doi: 10.1128/IAI.06146-11. Interplay between Candida albicans and the mammalian innate host defense
      Candida albicans is both the most common fungal commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and the major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in at-risk populations, especially immunocompromised patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and C. albicans, ranging from how the host recognizes, responds, and clears C. albicans infection to how C. albicans evades, dampens, and escapes from host innate immunity.[Article]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Sudbery PE. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011 Aug 16;9(10):737-48. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2636. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae
      The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage.[Abstract]
    4. REVIEW
    5. Kumamoto CA1, Vinces MD. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Nov;7(11):1546-54. Contributions of hyphae and hypha-co-regulated genes to Candida albicans virulence
      The fascinating ability of Candida albicans to undergo dramatic changes in cellular morphology has invited speculation that this plasticity in form contributes to the virulence of the organism. Molecular genetic analyses have confirmed this hypothesis and further demonstrated that genes that govern cellular morphology are co-regulated with genes encoding conventional virulence factors such as proteases and adhesins. The transcriptional regulatory networks of C. albicans thus ensure that hyphae are produced concomitantly with virulence factors, resulting in cells that are adapted for invading the tissues of an immunocompromised host. Hyphae are able to exert mechanical force, aiding penetration of epithelial surfaces, and hyphae damage endothelial cells, aiding escape of C. albicans from the host bloodstream into deeper tissue. Hyphal morphogenesis is thus an integral part of the overall virulence strategy of C. albicans.[Abstract]
    6. OTHER
    7. Kumamoto CA1, Pierce JV. Trends Microbiol. 2011 Jun;19(6):263-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2011.01.009. Immunosensing during colonization by Candida albicans: does it take a village to colonize the intestine?
      Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a component of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, is a frequent colonizer of humans. Is C. albicans capable of sensing the immune status of its host, a process we term immunosensing.[Article]
    8. YOUTUBE
    9. Fungal hyphae in microscope cam
      The fungal hyphae (strands) are faintly purplish brown. Greenish brown clumps are organic matter, typical of good soil. Some of the tiny specks are bacteria. These are most likely some of the many beneficial bacteria species vital to soil health.[Movie]
    10. YOUTUBE
    11. Candida albicans hyphal phenotype
      .[Movie]
    12. YOUTUBE
    13. Human neutrophils attacking fungal hyphae
      .[Movie]

    14. .[Abstract]

    Pathologie: darminfectie

      Is er wel sprake van een infectie?

      REVIEW
    1. Schulze J, Sonnenborn U. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009 Dec;106(51-52):837-42. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2009.0837. Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents
      Controversy still surrounds the question whether yeasts found in the gut are causally related to disease, constitute a health hazard, or require treatment. Yeasts, mainly Candida species, are present in the gut of about 70% of healthy adults. Mucocutaneous Candida infections are due either to impaired host defenses or to altered gene expression in formerly commensal strains. The expression of virulence factors enables yeasts to form biofilms, destroy tissues, and escape the immunological attacks of the host. Yeast infections of the intestinal mucosa are of uncertain clinical significance, and their possible connection to irritable bowel syndrome, while plausible, remains unproved. Yeast colonization can trigger allergic reactions. Mucosal yeast infections are treated with topically active polyene antimycotic drugs. The adjuvant administration of probiotics is justified on the basis of positive results from controlled clinical trials. The eradication of intestinal yeasts is advised only for certain clearly defined indications.[Article]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Nolting S1, Stanescu-Siegmund A, Schwantes PA. Fortschr Med. 1998 Feb 28;116(6):22-8. Candida and the gastrointestinal tract. A medical-research evaluation
      In immunocompetent persons, Candida species are members of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract. Budding yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, can, however, in patients with a corresponding disposition, spread topically and systemically, that is, they may become pathogenic. In hematological/oncological patients with severe immunodeficiency, for example, the mycelium may infiltrate the muscularis mucosae, with involvement also of the vascular system. The relationships between recurrent diarrhea and Candida are still discussed controversial; various data do, however, suggest that massive colonization with Candida might well represent a(n additional) diarrhea-provoking factor. Similar considerations may also be assumed to apply to diarrhea induced by antibiotic therapy. For immunocompetent persons, guidelines exist for the yeast cell count in the stools. The interpretation of quantitative findings must, however, always be made on an individual basis and against the background of clinical symptoms and/or any particular predisposition of the patient.[Abstract]

    4. .[Abstract]
    5. Intestinal barrier function

      REVIEW
    6. Groschwitz KR1, Hogan SP. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Jul;124(1):3-20; quiz 21-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.05.038. Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis
      The intestinal epithelium is a single-cell layer that constitutes the largest and most important barrier against the external environment. It acts as a selectively permeable barrier, permitting the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water while maintaining an effective defense against intraluminal toxins, antigens, and enteric flora. [Article]
    7. REVIEW
    8. Catalioto RM1, Maggi CA, Giuliani S. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(3):398-426. Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in disease and possible therapeutical interventions
      In vitro mild irritants, proinflammatory cytokines, toxins and pathogens, and adverse environmental conditions open tight junctions and increase paracellular permeability, an effect often accompanied by immune activation of the enterocytes. Conversely, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines, exposure to growth factors and probiotics, among others, exert a protective effect.[Abstract]
    9. REVIEW
    10. Yan L1, Yang C, Tang J. Microbiol Res. 2013 Aug 25;168(7):389-95. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2013.02.008. Disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier in Candida albicans infections
      C. albicans can switch from the yeast to the hyphal morphology, and take advantage of the impaired intestinal mucosal barrier and insufficient immunity of the host to facilitate its colonization and penetration.[Article]

    11. .[Abstract]
    12. Leaky Gut

      REVIEW
    13. Vojdani A. Altern Ther Health Med. 2013 Jan-Feb;19(1):12-24. For the assessment of intestinal permeability, size matters
      This article begins with the history and science behind the use of small sugars to measure permeability, a method developed in 1899. The lactulose/mannitol test may give useful information regarding the overall condition of the digestive tract; however, the author suggests that the test is not indicative of the transport of macromolecules such as bacterial toxins and food antigens, which have the capacity to damage the structure of the intestinal barrier and/or challenge the immune system.[Abstract]
    14. OTHER
    15. Fleming SC1, Duncan A, Russell RI, Laker MF. Clin Chem. 1996 Mar;42(3):445-8. Measurement of sugar probes in serum: an alternative to urine measurement in intestinal permeability testing
      The percentage dose of lactulose and mannitol excreted in urine after oral ingestion is used as a noninvasive method of assessing small intestinal permeability. The collection of incomplete or inaccurately timed urine samples can lead to errors in estimation of sugar probe molecules. We describe an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of lactulose and mannitol in serum after oral ingestion of test sugars.[Article]
    16. REVIEW
    17. Johnston SD1, Smye M, Watson RP. Clin Lab. 2001;47(3-4):143-50. Intestinal permeability tests in coeliac disease
      While many factors may affect intestinal permeability tests, the use of two probe molecules, for example, lactulose and mannitol, and the expression of the result as a ratio minimises the effects of these extraneous factors.[Abstract]
    18. REVIEW
    19. Hollander D. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 1999 Oct;1(5):410-6. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders
      A major task of the intestine is to form a defensive barrier to prevent absorption of damaging substances from the external environment. This protective function of the intestinal mucosa is called permeability. Clinicians can use inert, nonmetabolized sugars such as mannitol, rhamnose, or lactulose to measure the permeability barrier or the degree of leakiness of the intestinal mucosa.[Abstract]
    20. REVIEW
    21. Uil JJ1, van Elburg RM, van Overbeek FM, Mulder CJ, VanBerge-Henegouwen GP, Heymans HS. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1997;223:70-8. Clinical implications of the sugar absorption test: intestinal permeability test to assess mucosal barrier function
      The Sugar Absorption Test is very useful in screening for small intestinal disease, in assessing the response to treatment, and in predicting the prognosis, especially in coeliac disease.[Abstract]
    22. YOUTUBE
    23. Youtube – Intestinal Permeability Assesment – Report Review
      The Intestinal Permeability Assessment is an effective and non-invasive assessment of small intestinal absorption and barrier function in the bowel. This test analyzes urine for the clearance of two non-metabolized sugars, lactulose and mannitol, identifying intestinal permeability (“leaky gut”) and malabsorption. Both malabsorption and increased intestinal permeability are associated with chronic gastrointestinal imbalances, as well as many systemic disorders.[Movie]

    24. .[Abstract]

    25. .[Abstract]
    26. Ontsteking

      REVIEW
    27. Kumamoto C Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011 Aug;14(4):386-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.015. Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization
      Candida organisms commonly colonize the human gastrointestinal tract as a component of the resident microbiota. Their presence is generally benign. Recent studies, however, show that high level Candida colonization is associated with several diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Further, results from animal models argue that Candida colonization delays healing of inflammatory lesions and that inflammation promotes colonization. These effects may create a vicious cycle in which low-level inflammation promotes fungal colonization and fungal colonization promotes further inflammation. Both inflammatory bowel disease and gastrointestinal Candida colonization are associated with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17. Therefore, effects on IL-17 levels may underlie the ability of Candida colonization to enhance inflammation. Because Candida is a frequent colonizer, these effects have the potential to impact many people.[Abstract]
    28. Antibioticum gebruik

      REVIEW
    29. Péter Z, Telegdy L. Orv Hetil. 2002 Jul 21;143(29):1731-6. Fungal esophagitis
      Candida species, most frequently Candida albicans. Due to the large number of asymptomatic patients, great attention should be paid to the predisposing factors (AIDS, cancer, antibiotic or steroid therapy).[Abstract]
    30. Maragkoudakis E, Realdi G, Dore MP. Recenti Prog Med. 2005 Jun;96(6):311-7. Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal trac
      Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy.[Abstract]
    31. OTHER
    32. Samonis G1, Anastassiadou H, Dassiou M, Tselentis Y, Bodey GP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Mar;38(3):602-3. Effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on colonization of gastrointestinal tracts of mice by Candida albicans
      In this mouse model, Candida colonization increases substantially after the administration of antimicrobial agents with broad spectra and anaerobic activities.[Article]

    33. .[Abstract]
    34. Diabetes

      REVIEW
    35. Soysa NS, Samaranayake LP, Ellepola AN. Diabet Med. 2006 May;23(5):455-9. Diabetes mellitus as a contributory factor in oral candidosis
      It has been reported that poor glycaemic control predisposes to oral candidal infection in diabetic patients. For instance, the carriage of Candida species and the density of candidal growth in the oral cavity is frequently claimed to be increased in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the validity of these observations remains controversial. Hence, we review and discuss here the clinical data in the literature on the relationship between diabetes and oral candidal carriage and infection, and possible mechanisms associated with its pathogenicity.[Abstract]
    36. Nyirjesy P, Sobel JD. Postgrad Med. 2013 May;125(3):33-46. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2013.05.2650. Genital mycotic infections in patients with diabetes
      Patients with diabetes, especially those with poorly controlled glycemia, are prone to developing genital mycotic infections-vulvovaginal candidiasis in women and Candida balanitis in men-the latter almost exclusively in uncircumcised men.[Abstract]
    37. Higa M. Nihon Rinsho. 2008 Dec;66(12):2239-44. Clinical epidemiology of fungal infection in diabetes
      Onychomycosis, oral candidiasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis are observed frequently in diabetic patients.[Abstract]
    38. Corticosteroïden

      OTHER
    39. Fukushima C1, Matsuse H, Saeki S, Kawano T, Machida I, Kondo Y, Kohno S. J Asthma. 2005 Sep;42(7):601-4. Salivary IgA and oral candidiasis in asthmatic patients treated with inhaled corticosteroid
      Inhaled corticosteroids are used for the treatment of bronchial asthma. Systemic side effects are rare, but local problems, such as oral candidiasis, can occur. Our results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids can potentially decrease salivary total IgA but that host factors are also important in the development of oral candidiasis.[Abstract]
    40. CLINICAL
    41. Fukushima C1, Matsuse H, Tomari S, Obase Y, Miyazaki Y, Shimoda T, Kohno S. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Jun;90(6):646-51. Oral candidiasis associated with inhaled corticosteroid use: comparison of fluticasone and beclomethasone
      The amount of isolated Candida was significantly greater in asthmatic patients treated with fluticasone than in those treated with beclomethasone. Attention to dosage is required as the amount of Candida increased with dose of fluticasone. Gargling with a 1:50 dilution of amphotericin B is effective in treating oral candidiasis of asthmatic patients treated with inhaled steroids.[Abstract]
    42. META
    43. Lipworth BJ. Arch Intern Med. 1999 May 10;159(9):941-55. Systemic adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
      All inhaled corticosteroids exhibit dose-related systemic adverse effects, although these are less than with a comparable dose of oral corticosteroids. Metaanalysis shows that fluticasone propionate exhibits greater dose-related systemic bioactivity compared with other available inhaled corticosteroids, particularly at doses above 0.8 mg/d. The long-term systemic burden will be minimized by always trying to achieve the lowest possible maintenance dose that is associated with optimal asthmatic control and quality of life.[Artcile]
    44. Verwante stoornissen

      REVIEW
    45. Goldman DL, Huffnagle GB. Med Mycol. 2009;47(5):445-56. doi: 10.1080/13693780802641904 Potential contribution of fungal infection and colonization to the development of allergy
      Fungi have long been recognized as an important source of allergens in patients with atopic disease. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that fungal exposures resulting in colonization or infection directly influence the tendency of an individual to develop allergic disease. According to this hypothesis, fungal exposures especially those early in life may influence the manner in which the immune response handles subsequent responses to antigen exposure.[Abstract]
    46. Damman CJ, Miller SI, Surawicz CM, Zisman TL Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1452-9. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.93. The microbiome and inflammatory bowel disease: is there a therapeutic role for fecal microbiota transplantation?
      One hypothesis for the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease is that an altered or pathogenic microbiota causes inflammation in a genetically susceptible individual. Understanding the microbiota’s role in the pathogenesis of the disease could lead to new IBD treatments aimed at shifting the bacteria in the gut back to eubiosis. Probiotics have some efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), but our current repertoire is limited in potency. Fecal microbiota therapy (FMT) is an emerging treatment for several gastrointestinal and metabolic disorders.[Abstract]
    47. Manichanh C, Borruel N, Casellas F, Guarner F Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct;9(10):599-608. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2012.152. The gut microbiota in IBD
      The interaction of microbes with mucosal immune compartments in the gut seems to have a major role in priming and regulating immunity. In IBD, mucosal lesions are generated by an excessive or dysregulated immune response against commensal microbes in the gut. In individuals with a genetic susceptibility to IBD, abnormal microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract might be the origin of such dysregulation.[Abstract]
    48. STUDY
    49. Rucklidge JJ. Adv Mind Body Med. 2013 Summer;27(3):14-8. Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression
      Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida.[Abstract]
    50. Arthritis

    51. Fungal arthritis
      .[Article]
    52. candida arthritis
      .[Abstract]

    53. .[Abstract]

    Regulier behandeling darminfectie

      Nystatine

      META
    1. Gøtzsche PC, Johansen HK. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD002033. Nystatin prophylaxis and treatment in severely immunodepressed patients
      Nystatin cannot be recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of Candida infections in immunodepressed patients.[Abstract]
    2. RCT
    3. Normand S, François B, Dardé ML, Bouteille B, Bonnivard M, Preux PM, Gastinne H, Vignon P Intensive Care Med. 2005 Nov;31(11):1508-13. Oral nystatin prophylaxis of Candida spp. colonization in ventilated critically ill patients
      Oral nystatin prophylaxis efficiently prevented Candida spp. colonization in ICU patients at low risk of developing invasive candidiasis.[Abstract]
    4. Chen Z1, Yang CL, He HW, Zeng J. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2013 Aug;25(8):475-8. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2013.08.007. The clinical research of nystatin in prevention of invasive fungal infections in patients on mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit
      Nystatin might reduce the colonization of Candida albicans and was associated with shorter ICU day.[Abstract]

    5. .[Abstract]

    Orthomoleculaire behandeling darminfectie

      Probiotica

      OTHER
    1. Fijan S. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 May 5;11(5):4745-67. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110504745. Microorganisms with claimed probiotic properties: an overview of recent literature
      On the other hand, it is also demonstrated that the use of various probiotics for immunocompromised patients or patients with a leaky gut has also yielded infections, sepsis, fungemia, bacteraemia. Although the vast majority of probiotics that are used today are generally regarded as safe and beneficial for healthy individuals, caution in selecting and monitoring of probiotics for patients is needed and complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended.[Article]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Ciorba MA. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Sep;10(9):960-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2012.03.024. A gastroenterologist’s guide to probiotics
      Although probiotic research is a rapidly evolving field, there are sufficient data to justify a trial of probiotics for treatment or prevention of some of these conditions. However, the capacity of probiotics to modify disease symptoms is likely to be modest and varies among probiotic strains-not all probiotics are right for all diseases. The current review provides condition-specific rationale for using probiotic therapy and literature-based recommendations.[Article]
    4. REVIEW
    5. de Vrese M, Schrezenmeir J. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2008;111:1-66. doi: 10.1007/10_2008_097. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics
      A prebiotic is “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health”, whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics.[Abstract]
    6. OTHER
    7. Petrof EO. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2009 Sep 1;8(3):260-269. Probiotics and Gastrointestinal Disease: Clinical Evidence and Basic Science
      Our intestinal microbiota serve many roles vital to the normal daily function of the human gastrointestinal tract. Many probiotics are derived from our intestinal bacteria, and have been shown to provide clinical benefit in a variety of gastrointestinal conditions. Current evidence indicates that probiotic effects are strain-specific, they do not act through the same mechanisms, and nor are all probiotics indicated for the same health conditions. However, they do share several common features in that they exert anti-inflammatory effects, they employ different strategies to antagonize competing microorganisms, and they induce cytoprotective changes in the host either through enhancement of barrier function, or through the upregulation of cytoprotective host proteins. In this review we focus on a few selected probiotics – a bacterial mixture (VSL#3), a Gram-negative probiotic (E. coli Nissle 1917), two Gram-positive probiotic bacteria (LGG, L. reuteri), and a yeast probiotic (S. boulardii) – for which sound clinical and mechanistic data is available.[Article]
    8. RCT
    9. Hatakka K, Ahola AJ, Yli-Knuuttila H, Richardson M, Poussa T, Meurman JH, Korpela R J Dent Res. 2007 Feb;86(2):125-30. Probiotics reduce the prevalence of oral candida in the elderly–a randomized controlled trial
      Thus, probiotic bacteria can be effective in controlling oral Candida and hyposalivation in the elderly.[Abstract]
    10. Manzoni P, Mostert M, Leonessa ML, Priolo C, Farina D, Monetti C, Latino MA, Gomirato G. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jun 15;42(12):1735-42. Oral supplementation with Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus prevents enteric colonization by Candida species in preterm neonates: a randomized study
      Orally administered L. casei subspecies rhamnosus significantly reduces the incidence and the intensity of enteric colonization by Candida species among very low birth weight neonates.[Article]
    11. Romeo MG, Romeo DM, Trovato L, Oliveri S, Palermo F, Cota F, Betta P. J Perinatol. 2011 Jan;31(1):63-9. doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.57. Role of probiotics in the prevention of the enteric colonization by Candida in preterm newborns: incidence of late-onset sepsis and neurological outcome
      The use of both probiotics seems to be effective in the prevention of gastrointestinal colonization by Candida, in the protection from late-onset sepis and in reducing abnormal neurological outcomes in preterms.[Article]
    12. De Preter V, Raemen H, Cloetens L, Houben E, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;62(2):225-31. Effect of dietary intervention with different pre- and probiotics on intestinal bacterial enzyme activities
      Administration of lactulose, OF-IN, L. casei Shirota or B. breve resulted in a decrease of the beta-glucuronidase activity, which is considered beneficial for the host.[Article]
    13. Del Piano M, Carmagnola S, Andorno S, Pagliarulo M, Tari R, Mogna L, Strozzi GP, Sforza F, Capurso L. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Sep;44 Suppl 1:S42-6. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181ed0e71. Evaluation of the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in comparison with the same uncoated strains
      Probiotics are able to exert many different beneficial effects on the human host. These effects are mediated by the number of viable cells which reach the gut. The microencapsulation technique used in this study is a valid strategy to significantly improve gastroresistance of strains, thus enhancing their probiotic activity and allowing the use of a 5 times lower amount.[Abstract]
    14. CLINICAL TRIAL
    15. Zwoli?ska-Wcis?o M, Brzozowski T, Mach T, Budak A, Trojanowska D, Konturek PC, Pajdo R, Drozdowicz D, Kwiecie? S. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;57 Suppl 9:35-49. Are probiotics effective in the treatment of fungal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract? Experimental and clinical studies
      Conclusions: 1) Fungal colonization delays process of ulcer and inflammation healing of GI tract mucosa. That effect was attenuated by probiotic therapy. 2) Probiotic therapy seems to be effective in treatment of fungal colonization of GI tract. 3) Lactobacillus acidophilus therapy shortens the duration of fungal colonization of mucosa (enhanced Candida clearance is associated with IL-4, INF-gamma response).[Article]
    16. Smejkal C, Kolida S, Bingham M, Gibson G, McCartney A. J Br Menopause Soc. 2003 Jun;9(2):69-74. Probiotics and prebiotics in female health.
      Functional foods such as probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals are of extreme interest to researchers. There is growing evidence that these food ingredients may improve and in some cases treat certain conditions that are implicated in women’s health. The use of probiotics (live, beneficial bacteria) in improving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal tract conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, candidiasis and other female urogenital tract conditions are reviewed.[Abstract]
    17. Reid G, Dols J, Miller W. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Nov;12(6):583-7. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328331b611. Targeting the vaginal microbiota with probiotics as a means to counteract infections
      The mechanisms whereby certain probiotic lactobacilli improve urogenital health include immune modulation, pathogen displacement and creation of a niche less conducive to proliferation of pathogens and their virulence factors. Probiotics offer a potential new means to prevent urogenital infections and help maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem.[Abstract]
    18. RCT
    19. Kumar S1, Bansal A, Chakrabarti A, Singhi S. Crit Care Med. 2013 Feb;41(2):565-72. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31826a409c. Evaluation of efficacy of probiotics in prevention of candida colonization in a PICU-a randomized controlled trial
      Supplementation with probiotics could be a potential strategy to reduce gastrointestinal Candida colonization and candiduria in critically ill children receiving broad spectrum antibiotics.[Abstract]
    20. OTHER
    21. Kumar S1, Singhi S, Chakrabarti A, Bansal A, Jayashree M. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Nov;14(9):e409-15. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e31829f5d88. Probiotic use and prevalence of candidemia and candiduria in a PICU
      Routine use of a mix of probiotics in patients who receive broad-spectrum antibiotics could be a useful strategy to reduce the prevalence of candidemia and candiduria in the PICU.[Abstract]
    22. REVIEW
    23. Sanders ME. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S115-9. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e318227414a. Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut
      Although the value of targeted changes in populations of gut bacteria is a matter of debate, increased levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut correlate with numerous health endpoints. Microbiota changes due to probiotic intake include increased numbers of related phylotypes, decreasing pathogens and their toxins, altering bacterial community structure to enhance evenness, stabilizing bacterial communities when perturbed (eg, with antibiotics), or promoting a more rapid recovery from a perturbation.[Abstract]
    24. REVIEW
    25. Abad CL1, Safdar N. J Chemother. 2009 Jun;21(3):243-52. The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention of urogenital infections–a systematic review
      In conclusion, the use of certain lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri for prevention and treatment of recurrent urogenital infection is promising, especially for recurrent bacterial vaginosis.[Article]

      Prebiotica

      REVIEW
    1. Gibson GR. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1438S-41S. Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using the prebiotics oligofructose and inulin
      Although largely unproven in humans, better resistance to pathogens, reduction in blood lipids, antitumor properties, hormonal regulation and immune stimulation may all be possible through gut microflora manipulation. One approach advocates the oral intake of live microorganisms (probiotics). Although the probiotic approach has been extensively used and advocated, survivability/viability after ingestion is difficult to guarantee and almost impossible to prove. The prebiotic concept dictates that non viable dietary components fortify certain components of the intestinal flora (e.g., bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). This concept has the advantage that survival of the ingested ingredient through the upper gastrointestinal tract is not a prerequisite because it is indigenous bacterial genera that are targeted.[Abstract]
    2. Kelly G. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Dec;13(4):315-29. Inulin-type prebiotics–a review: part 1
      Prebiotics are a category of nutritional compounds grouped together by the ability to promote the growth of specific beneficial (probiotic) gut bacteria.[Article]
    3. Kelly G. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Mar;14(1):36-55. Inulin-type prebiotics: a review. (Part 2)
      This is part 2 of a two-part review of inulin-type prebiotics. This article discusses the clinical research on inulin-type prebiotics, including effects on infant nutrition, gastrointestinal health, colon cancer prevention, blood sugar and lipid metabolism, bone mineralization, fatty liver disease, obesity, and immunity. Gastrointestinal side effects and dosage recommendations are also considered..[Article]
    4. Kolida S, Tuohy K, Gibson GR. Br J Nutr. 2002 May;87 Suppl 2:S193-7. Prebiotic effects of inulin and oligofructose
      Efficient prebiotics need to have a specific fermentation therein and thereby have the ability to alter the faecal microflora composition towards a more ‘beneficial’ community structure. This should occur by the stimulation of benign or potentially health promoting genera but not the harmful groups.[Article]
    5. Blaut M. Eur J Nutr. 2002 Nov;41 Suppl 1:I11-6. Relationship of prebiotics and food to intestinal microflora
      Dietary carbohydrates that escape digestion in the small intestine, undergo bacterial fermentation in the colon. This process affects the microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract and influences gut metabolism and function. Prebiotics are non-digestible but fermentable oligosaccharides that are specifically designed to change the composition and activity of the intestinal microbiota with the prospect to promote the health of the host.[Abstract]
    6. Delzenne NM. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003 Feb;62(1):177-82. Oligosaccharides: state of the art
      Oligosaccharides that selectively promote some interesting bacterial species (e.g. lactobacilli, bifidobacteria), and thus equilibrate intestinal microflora, are now termed prebiotics.[Article]
    7. REVIEW
    8. Roberfroid M1, Gibson GR, Hoyles L, McCartney AL, Rastall R, Rowland I, Wolvers D, Watzl B, Szajewska H, Stahl B, Guarner F, Respondek F, Whelan K, Coxam V, Davicco MJ, Léotoing L, Wittrant Y, Delzenne NM, Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Meheust A. Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug;104 Suppl 2:S1-63. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510003363. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits
      Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2.[Article]

    9. .[Abstract]

    10. .[Abstract]

      Saccharomyces boulardii

    1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Saccharomyces cerevisiae
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakkersgist, brouwersgist, wijngist of biergist) is de meest gebruikte gist. De gist zorgt voor het fermenteren van koolhydraten. De cellen van Saccharomyces cerevisiae zijn rond tot eivormig en hebben een diameter van 5–10 µm.[Article]
    2. RCT
    3. McFarlin BK1, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, McFarlin MA. J Diet Suppl. 2013 Sep;10(3):171-83. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.820248. Baker’s yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise
      Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, is known to suppress mucosal immunity for up to 24 hr, which can increase the risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). In summary, the present study demonstrates that BG may reduce URTI symptomatic days and improve mucosal immunity (salivary IgA) postexercise. [Abstract]
    4. CLINICAL
    5. Carpenter KC, Breslin WL, Davidson T, Adams A, McFarlin BK. Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 14;109(3):478-86. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512001407. Baker’s yeast ?-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk?
      The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session.[Article]
    6. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Saccharomyces boulardii
      Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical strain of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. It is related to, but distinct from, Saccharomyces cerevisiae in several taxonomic, metabolic, and genetic properties.[1] S. boulardii is sometimes used as a probiotic with the purpose of introducing beneficial active cultures into the large and small intestine, as well as conferring protection against pathogenic microorganisms in the host.[Article]
    7. RCT
    8. Demirel G1, Celik IH, Erdeve O, Saygan S, Dilmen U, Canpolat FE. Eur J Pediatr. 2013 Oct;172(10):1321-6. doi: 10.1007/s00431-013-2041-4. Prophylactic Saccharomyces boulardii versus nystatin for the prevention of fungal colonization and invasive fungal infection in premature infants
      Prophylactic S. boulardii supplementation is as effective as nystatin in reducing fungal colonization and invasive fungal infection, more effective in reducing the incidence of clinical sepsis and number of sepsis attacks and has favorable effect on feeding intolerance.[Abstract]
    9. META
    10. Szajewska H1, Horvath A, Piwowarczyk A. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Nov;32(9):1069-79. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2010.04457.x. Meta-analysis: the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during treatment
      In patients with H. pylori infection, there is evidence to recommend the use of S. boulardii along with standard triple therapy as an option for increasing the eradication rates and decreasing overall therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhoea.[Abstract]
    11. RCT
    12. Shan LS1, Hou P, Wang ZJ, Liu FR, Chen N, Shu LH, Zhang H, Han XH, Han XX, Cai XX, Shang YX, Vandenplas Y. Benef Microbes. 2013 Dec 1;4(4):329-34. doi: 10.3920/BM2013.0008. Prevention and treatment of diarrhoea with Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections
      S. boulardii appeared to be effective in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea and AAD in children treated with intravenous antibiotics.[Abstract]
    13. OTHER
    14. Collignon A1, Sandré C, Barc MC. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Sep;34 Suppl 1:S71-8. doi: 10.1016/S0399-8320(10)70024-5. Saccharomyces boulardii modulates dendritic cell properties and intestinal microbiota disruption after antibiotic treatment
      These results showed that S. boulardii treatment tends to restore the balance of the dominant anaerobic microbiota more rapidly in human microbiota associated-mice treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; the results also suggest that the yeast has a role in modulating the specific immune response to microbial associated-molecular patterns. This may explain, at least in part, the beneficial effects of S. boulardii in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This also suggests that the yeast plays a role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis.[Abstract]
    15. RCT
    16. Garcia Vilela E1, De Lourdes De Abreu Ferrari M, Oswaldo Da Gama Torres H, Guerra Pinto A, Carolina Carneiro Aguirre A, Paiva Martins F, Marcos Andrade Goulart E, Sales Da Cunha A. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(7):842-8. doi: 10.1080/00365520801943354. Influence of Saccharomyces boulardii on the intestinal permeability of patients with Crohn’s disease in remission
      Patients with CD in remission present alterations in the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier according to lactulose/mannitol ratio. S. boulardii added to baseline therapy improved intestinal permeability in these patients, even though complete normalization was not achieved.[Abstract]
    17. OTHER
    18. Krasowska A1, Murzyn A, Dyjankiewicz A, ?ukaszewicz M, Dziadkowiec D. FEMS Yeast Res. 2009 Dec;9(8):1312-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2009.00559.x. Epub 2009 Aug 5. The antagonistic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans filamentation, adhesion and biofilm formation
      Saccharomyces boulardii has a strong negative effect on very important virulence factors of C. albicans, i.e. the ability to form filaments and to adhere and form biofilms on plastic surfaces.[Article]
    19. OTHER
    20. Murzyn A1, Krasowska A, Stefanowicz P, Dziadkowiec D, ?ukaszewicz M. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 10;5(8):e12050. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012050. Capric acid secreted by S. boulardii inhibits C. albicans filamentous growth, adhesion and biofilm formation
      Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and biofilm formation.[Article]
    21. OTHER
    22. Ryan EP1, Heuberger AL, Weir TL, Barnett B, Broeckling CD, Prenni JE. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 9;59(5):1862-70. doi: 10.1021/jf1038103. Rice bran fermented with saccharomyces boulardii generates novel metabolite profiles with bioactivity
      Emerging evidence supporting chronic disease fighting properties of rice bran has advanced the development of stabilized rice bran for human use as a functional food and dietary supplement. A global and targeted metabolomic investigation of stabilized rice bran fermented with Saccharomyces boulardii was performed in three rice varieties. hese data support that integration of global and targeted metabolite analysis can be utilized for assessing health properties of rice bran phytochemicals that are enhanced by yeast fermentation and that differ across rice varieties. [Article]
    23. REVIEW
    24. Priyanka Prajapati, Miral Patel and *Krishnamurthy R. CIBTech Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 2319-3859 (Online) SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII – A PROBIOTIC OF CHOICE
      Saccharomyces boulardii is non-pathogenic yeast which has been used as both a preventive and therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of diarrheal diseases.[Article]
    25. OTHER
    26. Kelesidis T1, Pothoulakis C. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar;5(2):111-25. doi: 10.1177/1756283X11428502. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders
      Several clinical trials and experimental studies strongly suggest a place for Saccharomyces boulardii as a biotherapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases. S. boulardii mediates responses resembling the protective effects of the normal healthy gut flora. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans. [Article]
    27. REVIEW
    28. Berni Canani R1, Cucchiara S, Cuomo R, Pace F, Papale F. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Jul;15(7):809-22. Saccharomyces boulardii: a summary of the evidence for gastroenterology clinical practice in adults and children
      Saccharomyces boulardii is the only yeast commonly used in clinical practice. Literature on this probiotic is wide and even more data become available each year. With the aim to help physicians in the use of Saccharomyces boulardii, this paper focuses on the available evidences for its efficacy and safety in different diseases in adult and pediatric patients in order to provide a practical guidance for gastroenterology clinical practic.[Article]
    29. REVIEW
    30. Muñoz P1, Bouza E, Cuenca-Estrella M, Eiros JM, Pérez MJ, Sánchez-Somolinos M, Rincón C, Hortal J, Peláez T. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 1;40(11):1625-34. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia: an emerging infectious disease
      Use of S. cerevisiae probiotics should be carefully reassessed, particularly in immunosuppressed or critically ill patients..[Article]
    31. OTHER
    32. Singhi SC1, Baranwal A. Indian J Pediatr. 2008 Jun;75(6):621-7. doi: 10.1007/s12098-008-0119-1. Probiotic use in the critically ill
      At present, despite theoretical potential benefits, available evidence is not conclusive to recommend probiotics for routine use in the critically ill.[Abstract]
    33. OTHER
    34. Constantinos Karaolis, George Botsaris*, Iakovos Pantelides andDimitris Tsaltas International Journal of Food Science & Technology Volume 48, Issue 7, pages 1445–1452, July 2013 Potential application of Saccharomyces boulardii as a probiotic in goat’s yoghurt: survival and organoleptic effects
      Potential application of Saccharomyces boulardii in yoghurts could offer an alternative probiotic product to people suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhoea whilst on treatment..[Abstract]

    35. .[Abstract]

    36. .[Abstract]

    37. .[Abstract]

      Knoflook

      OTHER
    1. Pai ST1, Platt MW. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1995 Jan;20(1):14-8. Antifungal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against the Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis
      AGE and especially CGO were found to have antifungal activity. These agents showed similar or better inhibitory effects than the pharmaceutical preparations and demonstrated similar minimum inhibitory concentrations.[Abstract]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Hronek M, Vachtlová D, Kudlácková Z, Jílek P. Ceska Gynekol. 2005 Sep;70(5):395-9. Antifungal effect in selected natural compounds and probiotics and their possible use in prophylaxis of vulvovaginitis
      The efficiency of garlic extract under in vitro conditions against yeast of C. albicans family becomes manifest within one hour.[Abstract]
    4. Ankri S, Mirelman D. Microbes Infect. 1999 Feb;1(2):125-9. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic
      Allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has a variety of antimicrobial activities. Allicin in its pure form was found to exhibit i) antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant enterotoxicogenic strains of Escherichia coli; ii) antifungal activity, particularly against Candida albicans; iii) antiparasitic activity, including some major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia; and iv) antiviral activity.[Abstract]
    5. Harris JC, Cottrell SL, Plummer S, Lloyd D. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001 Oct;57(3):282-6. Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic)
      Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions; not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal, but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems.[Abstract]
    6. Davis SR. Mycoses. 2005 Mar;48(2):95-100. An overview of the antifungal properties of allicin and its breakdown products–the possibility of a safe and effective antifungal prophylacti
      These derivatives appear to be safe, cheap, wide-spectrum and immunostimulatory, as well as possibly synergistic with conventional antifungal therapy, making them ideal candidates for investigation into their use as prophylactic antifungal agents.[Abstract]
    7. STUDY
    8. An M, Shen H, Cao Y, Zhang J, Cai Y, Wang R, Jiang Y. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 Mar;33(3):258-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.09.014. Allicin enhances the oxidative damage effect of amphotericin B against Candida albicans
      We envision that a combination of AmB with allicin may prove to be a promising strategy for the therapy of disseminated candidiasis.[Abstract]
    9. OTHER
    10. Khodavandi A1, Alizadeh F, Aala F, Sekawi Z, Chong PP. Mycopathologia. 2010 Apr;169(4):287-95. doi: 10.1007/s11046-009-9251-3. In vitro investigation of antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with azoles against Candida species
      Our results demonstrated the existing synergistic effect between allicin and azoles in some of the Candida spp. such as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis.[Abstract]
    11. REVIEW
    12. Goncagul G1, Ayaz E. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2010 Jan;5(1):91-3. Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum
      It is scientifically proven that garlic is effectively used in cardiovascular diseases as a regulator of blood pressure, with dropper effects on glycaemia and high blood cholesterol, against bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic infections.[Abstract]
    13. REVIEW
    14. Iciek M1, Kwiecie? I, W?odek L. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2009 Apr;50(3):247-65. doi: 10.1002/em.20474. Biological properties of garlic and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds
      Garlic enhances immune functions and has antibacterial, antifungal and antivirus activities.[Abstract]
    15. REVIEW
    16. Ledezma E1, Apitz-Castro R. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2006 Jun;23(2):75-80. Ajoene the main active compound of garlic (Allium sativum): a new antifungal agent
      Those studies found that ajoene has antithrombotic, anti-tumoral,antifungal, and antiparasitic effects. This study deals with a recently described antifungal property of ajoene, and its potential use in clinical trails to treat several fungal infections.[Abstract]
    17. REVIEW
    18. Harris JC1, Cottrell SL, Plummer S, Lloyd D. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001 Oct;57(3):282-6. Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic)
      Although garlic has been used for its medicinal properties for thousands of years, investigations into its mode of action are relatively recent. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions; not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal, but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems.[Abstract]
    19. REVIEW
    20. Ankri S1, Mirelman D. Microbes Infect. 1999 Feb;1(2):125-9. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic
      Allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has a variety of antimicrobial activities. Allicin in its pure form was found to exhibit i) antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant enterotoxicogenic strains of Escherichia coli; ii) antifungal activity, particularly against Candida albicans; iii) antiparasitic activity, including some major human intestinal protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia; and iv) antiviral activity.[Abstract]
    21. OTHER
    22. Lemar KM1, Turner MP, Lloyd D. alternative search: Garlic (Allium sativum) as an anti-Candida agent: a comparison of the efficacy of fresh garlic and freeze-dried extracts
      The ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen C. albicans is sensitive to garlic; resistance to the broad spectrum of active principles present is unlikely so that its anticandidal effects may provide an important alternative route to chemotherapy.[Abstract]
    23. OTHER
    24. Low CF1, Chong PP, Yong PV, Lim CS, Ahmad Z, Othman F. J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Dec;105(6):2169-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03912.x. Inhibition of hyphae formation and SIR2 expression in Candida albicans treated with fresh Allium sativum (garlic) extract
      Garlic and its bioactive components have the ability to suppress hyphae production and to affect the expression level of SIR2 gene.[Abstract]

    25. .[Abstract]

    26. .[Abstract]

    27. .[Abstract]

      Clostridium difficile

    1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Clostridium difficile
      Clostridium difficile is een Gram-positieve, anaerobe, sporevormende staafbacterie die veel voorkomt in de darmen maar daar doorgaans geen problemen veroorzaakt. Overgroei van Clostridium difficile bij volwassenen kan ontstaan door het gebruik van antibiotica (antibioticum-geassocieerde colitis, pseudomembraneuze colitis of clostridiumziekte). Alle antibiotica kunnen dit veroorzaken maar clindamycine, ampicilline en cefalosporinen worden vaak genoemd.[Article]
    2. By Mayo Clinic Staff C. difficile infection
      C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment — in soil, air, water, human and animal feces, and food products, such as processed meats. A small number of healthy people naturally carry the bacteria in their large intestine and don’t have ill effects from the infection.[Article]
    3. Incidense

    4. Gulácsi L, Kertész A, Kopcsóné Németh I, Banai J, Ludwig E, Prinz G, Reményi P, Strbák B, Zsoldiné Urbán E, Baji P, Péntek M, Brodszky V. Orv Hetil. 2013 Jul 28;154(30):1188-93. doi: 10.1556/OH.2013.29674. Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, disease burden and therapy
      C. difficile causes 25 percent of the antibiotic associated infectious nosocomial diarrhoeas. C. difficile infection is a high-priority problem of public health in each country.[Abstract]
    5. OTHER
    6. Thorpe CM1, Gorbach SL Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 2006 Jun;9(3):265-71. Update on Clostridium difficile.
      The most dramatic change in the past several years has been the increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile colitis reported from multiple countries. A number of factors have likely contributed to this. One major event has been the emergence of a fluoroquinolone-resistant clone of C. difficile with enhanced virulence properties that is associated with epidemic disease.[Abstract]
    7. REVIEW
    8. Cocanour CS. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2011 Jun;12(3):235-9. doi: 10.1089/sur.2010.080. Best strategies in recurrent or persistent Clostridium difficile infection
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis and 15-25% of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Its clinical manifestations can range from mild diarrhea to toxic megacolon, bowel perforation, septic shock, and death. Over the past decade, more virulent strains have become increasingly common causes, and the incidence of CDI has risen, especially in elderly patients.[Abstract]
    9. REVIEW
    10. Le Monnier A1, Zahar JR2, Barbut F3. Med Mal Infect. 2014 Aug 21. pii: S0399-077X(14)00084-5. doi: 10.1016/j.medmal.2014.04.002. Update on Clostridium difficile infections
      Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) occur primarily in hospitalized patients with risk factors such as concomitant or recent use of antibiotics. CDI epidemiology has changed since 2003: they became more frequent boosted by large outbreaks, more severe, more resistant to antibiotic treatment, and spread to new groups of population without any risk factor. This is partly due to the emergence and worldwide dissemination of new and more virulent C. difficile strains such as the epidemic clone 027/NAP1/BI. [Abstract]
    11. Risk Factors

      REVIEW
    12. Iv EC, Iii EC, Johnson DA. World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb 6;5(1):1-26. doi: 10.4292/wjgpt.v5.i1.1. Clinical update for the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection
      Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) presents a rapidly evolving challenge in the battle against hospital-acquired infections. Recent advances in CDI diagnosis and management include rapid changes in diagnostic approach with the introduction of newer tests, such as detection of glutamate dehydrogenase in stool and polymerase chain reaction to detect the gene for toxin production, which will soon revolutionize the diagnostic approach to CDI.[Article]
    13. Antibiotics

      META
    14. Deshpande A1, Pasupuleti V, Thota P, Pant C, Rolston DD, Sferra TJ, Hernandez AV, Donskey CJ. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Sep;68(9):1951-61. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt129. Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection and antibiotics: a meta-analysis
      The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between antibiotic exposure and community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) (i.e. symptom onset in the community with no healthcare facility admission within 12 weeks) and to determine the classes of antibiotics posing the greatest risk. Antibiotic exposure was an important risk factor for CA-CDI, but the risk was different amongst different antibiotic classes. The risk was greatest with clindamycin followed by fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, whereas tetracyclines were not associated with an increased risk.[Article]
    15. REVIEW
    16. Tschudin-Sutter S1, Widmer AF, Perl TM. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Aug;25(4):405-11. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835533a2. Clostridium difficile: novel insights on an incessantly challenging disease
      Incidence of Clostridium difficile continues to rise and hypervirulent subtypes such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027 and 078 have emerged worldwide. Proton pump inhibitors are now established as important risk factors for acquiring, complicating CDI, and developing recurrences. Fidaxomycin, monoclonal antibodies and intestinal microbiota transplantation are promising new treatment options, especially regarding prevention of recurrent disease. [Abstract]
    17. Acid suppressing drugs

      META
    18. Garey KW1, Sethi S, Yadav Y, DuPont HL. J Hosp Infect. 2008 Dec;70(4):298-304. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2008.08.012. Meta-analysis to assess risk factors for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
      Continued use of non-C. difficile antibiotics after diagnosis of CDI (OR: 4.23; 95% CI: 2.10-8.55; P<0.001), concomitant receipt of antacid medications (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.13-4.08; P=0.019), and older age (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.11-2.36; P=0.0012) were significantly associated with increased risk of recurrent CDI.[Abstract]
    19. Treatment

      STUDY
    20. van Nood E, Keller JJ, Kuijper EJ, Speelman P. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157(48):A6580. New treatment options for infections with Clostridium difficile
      The new narrow spectrum antibiotic fidaxomicin is a good alternative in a first CDI or a first recurrence, but treatment is expensive and there are no data on its effectiveness in a second or later recurrence.- Fidaxomicin is less effective against infections caused by the Ribotype 027 strain, a virulent strain that is regularly encountered in the Netherlands.[Abstract]
    21. REVIEW
    22. Piekarska M, Wanda?owicz AD, Miigo? H. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2014 Apr;36(214):278-82. Clostridium difficile infecion–diagnostics, prevention and treatment
      Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of an antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Frequency of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) increased in the last decade. Moreover available methods of treatment were presented depending on severity of CDI e.i. metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, rifaximin. [Abstract]
    23. faecal microbiota transplantation

      STUDY
    24. Song Y, Garg S, Girotra M, Maddox C, von Rosenvinge EC, Dutta A, Dutta S, Fricke WF. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 26;8(11):e81330. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081330. Microbiota Dynamics in Patients Treated with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection
      Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an alternate treatment option for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI) refractory to antibiotic therapy.[Abstract]
    25. Zipursky JS, Sidorsky TI, Freedman CA, Sidorsky MN, Kirkland KB. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Dec;55(12):1652-8. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis809. Patient attitudes toward the use of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
      Patients recognize the inherently unappealing nature of FMT, but they are nonetheless open to considering it as a treatment alternative for recurrent CDI, especially when recommended by a physician.[Abstract]
    26. REVIEW
    27. Austin M1, Mellow M2, Tierney WM3. Am J Med. 2014 Jun;127(6):479-83. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.017. Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections
      In recent years, Clostridium difficile infections have become more frequent, more severe, more refractory to standard treatment, and more likely to recur. Current antibiotic treatment regimens for Clostridium difficile infection alter the normal gut flora, which provide colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile. Fecal microbiota transplantation has been shown to be efficacious for patients with multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (reported cure rates of 90%), with an excellent short-term safety profile, and has been included in the American College of Gastroenterology treatment guidelines for this troublesome disease.[Abstract]
    28. RCT
    29. Brandt LJ1, Aroniadis OC, Mellow M, Kanatzar A, Kelly C, Park T, Stollman N, Rohlke F, Surawicz C. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;107(7):1079-87. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.60. Long-term follow-up of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
      FMT is a rational, durable, safe, and acceptable treatment option for patients with recurrent CD.[Abstract]
    30. REVIEW
    31. Khoruts A1, Weingarden AR2. Immunol Lett. 2014 Aug 8. pii: S0165-2478(14)00156-4. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2014.07.016. Emergence of fecal microbiota transplantation as an approach to repair disrupted microbial gut ecolog
      In the recent years fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as an effective therapeutic option for patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection that is not responding to antibiotic therapy. [Abstract]
    32. REVIEW
    33. Di Bella S1, Drapeau C2, García-Almodóvar E3, Petrosillo N1. Infect Dis Rep. 2013 Nov 27;5(2):e13. doi: 10.4081/idr.2013.e13. eCollection 2013. Fecal microbiota transplantation: the state of the art
      The gut microbiota transplantation is a technique that has been sporadically practiced since the ’50s, but its clinical efficacy has only recently been supported by scientific evidence. [Article]
    34. REVIEW
    35. Van den Abbeele P1, Verstraete W, El Aidy S, Geirnaert A, Van de Wiele T. Microb Biotechnol. 2013 Jul;6(4):335-40. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12049. Prebiotics, faecal transplants and microbial network units to stimulate biodiversity of the human gut microbiome
      A faecal transplantation is a second approach to restore biodiversity when the microbiota is severely dysbiosed, with promising results regarding C. difficile-associated disease and obesity-related metabolic syndromes.[Article]
    36. Probiotica

      META
    37. Johnston BC1, Ma SS, Goldenberg JZ, Thorlund K, Vandvik PO, Loeb M, Guyatt GH. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Dec 18;157(12):878-88. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
      Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotic prophylaxis results in a large reduction in CDAD without an increase in clinically important adverse events.[Abstract]

    38. .[Abstract]

      Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree olie)

      MULTICENTER
    1. Bagg J, Jackson MS, Petrina Sweeney M, Ramage G, Davies AN. Oral Oncol. 2006 May;42(5):487-92. Epub 2006 Feb 2 Susceptibility to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil of yeasts isolated from the mouths of patients with advanced cancer
      Yeasts that are resistant to azole antifungal drugs are increasingly isolated from the mouths of cancer patients suffering from oral fungal infections. Tea tree oil is an agent possessing antimicrobial properties that may prove useful in the prevention and management of infections caused by these organisms. In this study, 301 yeasts isolated from the mouths of 199 patients suffering from advanced cancer were examined by an in vitro agar dilution assay for susceptibility to tea tree oil. All of the isolates tested were susceptible, including 41 that were known to be resistant to both fluconazole and itraconazole.[Abstract]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan;19(1):50-6 Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal propertie
      This review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the oil and its components, as well as clinical efficacy.[Article]
    4. STUDY
    5. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Nov;42(5):591-5. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp
      These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.[Article]

      Lysozyme

    1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lysozyme
      Lysozymes, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase, are glycoside hydrolases. [Article]
    2. REVIEW
    3. Mehra T, Köberle M, Braunsdorf C, Mailänder-Sanchez D, Borelli C, Schaller M. Exp Dermatol. 2012 Oct;21(10):778-82. doi: 10.1111/exd.12004. Alternative approaches to antifungal therapies
      Cationic peptides are small, predominantly positively charged protein fragments that exert direct and indirect antifungal activities, one mechanism of action being the permeabilization of the fungal membrane. They include lysozyme, defensins and cathelicidins as well as novel synthetic peptides.[Article]
    4. Epstein JB, Truelove EL, Izutzu KT. Rev Infect Dis. 1984 Jan-Feb;6(1):96-106. Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis and host defense
      Oral candidiasis is a common problem, frequently presenting as a chronic recurring infection. Nonspecific local oral factors in host defense include the epithelial barrier, flow or saliva, microbial interactions, antimicrobial constituents of saliva, lysozyme, lactoferrin, the lactoperoxidase system, levels of iron, and salivary glycoproteins. Immunoglobins are present in saliva, but their role is poorly understood.[Abstract]

      Lactoferrine

      MULTICENTER RCT
    1. Manzoni P, Stolfi I, Messner H, Cattani S, Laforgia N, Romeo MG, Bollani L, Rinaldi M, Gallo E, Quercia M, Maule M, Mostert M, Decembrino L, Magaldi R, Mosca F, Vagnarelli F, Memo L, Betta PM, Stronati M, Farina D; Italian Task Force for the Study and Prevention of Neonatal Fungal Infections–the Italian Society of Neonatology. Pediatrics. 2012 Jan;129(1):116-23. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0279. Bovine lactoferrin prevents invasive fungal infections in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial
      Prophylactic oral administration of bLF reduces the incidence of IFI in preterm VLBW neonates. No effect is seen on colonization. The protective effect on IFI is likely due to limitation of ability of fungal colonies to progress toward invasion and systemic disease in colonized infants.[Article]

      Grapefruit

      STUDY
    1. Krajewska-Ku?ak E, Lukaszuk C, Niczyporuk W. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47(4):845-9. Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast–like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds
      The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds.[Abstract]
    2. Bernatoniene J, Kerait? R, Masteiková R, Pavilonis A, Savickas A. Ceska Slov Farm. 2013 Fall;62(5):212-219. A combination of grapefruit seed extract and concentrated cranberry juice as a potential antimicrobial preservative for the improvement of microbiological stability of hypromellose gel
      Candida albicans was sensitive only to GSE.[Abstract]
    3. OTHER
    4. von Woedtke T1, Schlüter B, Pflegel P, Lindequist U, Jülich WD Pharmazie. 1999 Jun;54(6):452-6. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained
      Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within.[Abstract]

    5. .[Abstract]

    Essentiële oliën

    REVIEW
  • Kalemba D, Kunicka A. Curr Med Chem. 2003 May;10(10):813-29. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils
    Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.[Abstract]
  • Reichling J, Schnitzler P, Suschke U, Saller R. Forsch Komplementmed. 2009 Apr;16(2):79-90. doi: 10.1159/000207196. Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties–an overview
    The abundant use of anti-infective agents resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses. To overcome the increasing resistance of pathogenic microbes, a variety of medicinal plants have been screened worldwide for their antimicrobial properties. The aim is to find new, effective antimicrobial agents with novel modes of actions. Essential oils derived from aromatic medicinal plants have been reported to exhibit exceptionally good antimicrobial effects against bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and viruses. The progress of this expanding scientific field will be documented by the most important results published in the last decade.[Abstract]
  • STUDY
  • Pinto E, Vale-Silva L, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L. J Med Microbiol. 2009 Nov;58(Pt 11):1454-62. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.010538-0. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species
    The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.[Article]
  • Bluma R, Amaiden MR, Daghero J, Etcheverry M. J Appl Microbiol. 2008 Jul;105(1):203-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03741.x. Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils
    Anise and boldus essential oils could be considered as effective fungitoxicans for Aspergillus section flavi.[Abstract]
  • Pozzatti P, Scheid LA, Spader TB, Atayde ML, Santurio JM, Alves SH. Can J Microbiol. 2008 Nov;54(11):950-6. doi: 10.1139/w08-097. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp
    The main finding was that the susceptibilities of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Candida non-albicans to Mexican oregano, oregano, thyme, and ginger essential oils were higher than those of the fluconazole-susceptible yeasts.[Abstract]
    1. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia)

      STUDY
    2. Romano L, Battaglia F, Masucci L, Sanguinetti M, Posteraro B, Plotti G, Zanetti S, Fadda G. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Jan;55(1):110-4. In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates
      These data indicate that bergamot oils are active in vitro against Candida spp., suggesting their potential role for the topical treatment of Candida infections.[Article]

    3. .[Abstract]

    Raspberry

      OTHER
    1. Nohynek LJ1, Alakomi HL, Kähkönen MP, Heinonen M, Helander IM, Oksman-Caldentey KM, Puupponen-Pimiä RH. Nutr Cancer. 2006;54(1):18-32. Berry phenolics: antimicrobial properties and mechanisms of action against severe human pathogens
      Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of phenolic extracts of 12 Nordic berries were studied against selected human pathogenic microbes. The most sensitive bacteria on berry phenolics were Helicobacter pylori and Bacillus cereus. Campylobacter jejuni and Candida albicans were inhibited only with phenolic extracts of cloudberry, raspberry, and strawberry, which all were rich in ellagitannins.[Abstract]
    2. OTHER
    3. Cavanagh HM1, Hipwell M, Wilkinson JM. J Med Food. 2003 Spring;6(1):57-61. Antibacterial activity of berry fruits used for culinary purposes
      Increasing interest in the health benefits of various culinary berries has led to investigation of their antibacterial activity. Commercial raspberry, blackcurrant, cranberry, and blackberry cordials (100% fruit) as well as fresh berries were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. Three of the six raspberry cordials and the blackcurrant cordial inhibited all 12 bacteria and C. albicans at dilutions of 1:5. Bacteria showed varying susceptibilities to the remaining cordials. All cordials inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium phlei. Of the fresh berries, mulberries and boysenberries did not inhibit any bacteria, and the remaining berries inhibited the growth of varying numbers of bacteria. There was no correlation between gram-positive or gram-negative bacterial status and susceptibility to the berries. It is suggested that the antibacterial activity of these berries may be of benefit as a means of water purification for suspect water supplies or to enhance shelf life when incorporated into food product.[Abstract]

    4. .[Abstract]

    Prebiotica


  • .[Abstract]

  • .[Abstract]

  • .[Abstract]
  • Probiotica

    RCT
  • Falagas M, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 Jul;13(7):657-64. Probiotics for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis
    In-vitro studies have suggested that certain specific strains of lactobacilli are able to inhibit the adherence of Gardnerella vaginalis to the vaginal epithelium and/or produce H2O2, lactic acid and/or bacteriocins, which inhibit the growth of bacteria causing BV. Clinical trials showed that intra-vaginal administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus for 6-12 days, or oral administration of L. acidophilus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 for 2 months, resulted in the cure of BV.[Abstract]
  • Martinez RC, Franceschini SA, Patta MC, Quintana SM, Gomes BC, De Martinis EC, Reid G. Can J Microbiol. 2009 Feb;55(2):133-8. doi: 10.1139/w08-102. Improved cure of bacterial vaginosis with single dose of tinidazole (2 g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    This study shows that probiotic lactobacilli can provide benefits to women being treated with antibiotics for an infectious condition.[Abstract]
  • Shalev E, Battino S, Weiner E, Colodner R, Keness Y. Arch Fam Med. 1996 Nov-Dec;5(10):593-6. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis
    We concluded that daily ingestion of 150 mL of yogurt, enriched with live L acidophilus, was associated with an increased prevalence of colonization of the rectum and vagina by the bacteria, and this ingestion of yogurt may have reduced episodes of BV.[Abstract]
  • Stapleton AE, Au-Yeung M, Hooton TM, Fredricks DN, Roberts PL, Czaja CA, Yarova-Yarovaya Y, Fiedler T, Cox M, Stamm WE Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May;52(10):1212-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir183. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infectio
    Lactin-V after treatment for cystitis is associated with a reduction in recurrent UT.[Abstract]
  • Hemmerling A, Harrison W, Schroeder A, Park J, Korn A, Shiboski S, Foster-Rosales A, Cohen CR. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Dec;37(12):745-50. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181e50026. Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginos
    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection caused by a lack of endogenous lactobacilli and overgrowth of pathogens that frequently recurs following antibiotic treatment. LACTIN-V colonized well, and was safe and acceptable in women treated for BV.[Abstract]
  • REVIEW
  • Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Aug;58(2):266-72. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review
    The results of some clinical trials support the effectiveness of lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, administered either orally or intravaginally in colonizing the vagina and/or preventing the colonization and infection of the vagina by C. albicans, while the results of a small number of clinical trials do not corroborate these findings.[Article]
  • STUDY
  • Martinez RC, Seney SL, Summers KL, Nomizo A, De Martinis EC, Reid Microbiol Immunol. 2009 Sep;53(9):487-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1348-0421.2009.00154.x. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 on the ability of Candida albicans to infect cells and induce inflammation
    In conclusion, L. reuteri RC-14 alone and together with L. rhamnosus GR-1 have the potential to inhibit the yeast growth and their CFS may up-regulate IL-8 and IP-10 secretion by VK2/E6E7 cells, which could possibly have played an important role in helping to clear VVC in vivo.[Abstract]
  • REVIEW
  • Parma M, Stella Vanni V, Bertini M, Candiani M. Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Winter;20 Suppl 1:52-7. Probiotics in the prevention of recurrences of bacterial vaginosis
    Probiotic supplementation with vaginal LB proved to be crucial in hindering bacteria growth after antibiotic therapy; therefore this intervention may be considered a new adjuvant treatment for preventing recurrence of BV, even in high-risk patients.[Abstract]
  • RCT
  • Kovachev S, Dobrevski-Vacheva R. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2013;52 Suppl 1:48-53. Effect of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus (Gynophilus) in restoring the vaginal flora by female patients with bacterial vaginosis–randomized, open clinical trial
    The application of Gynophilus after conventional 5-nitroimidazole treatment for bacterial vaginosis increased the clinical and microbiological efficacy of the therapy by 25% – 30%. The microbial balance in the vaginal ecosystem was restored in the majority of patients (88%), which is a prerequisite for low percentage of bacterial vaginosis relapses. [Abstract]
  • RCT
  • Kovachev S, Dobrevski-Vacheva R. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2013;52 Suppl 1:36-42. Probiotic monotherapy of bacterial vaginosis: a open, randomized trial
    Our results show that the local monotherapy with probiotics has fewer efficacies in comparison to the combine therapeutic schemes for treatment of vaginal disbacteriosis with dominant anaerobic species.[Abstract]
  • RCT
  • Facchinetti F1, Dante G, Pedretti L, Resasco P, Annessi E, Dodero D. Minerva Ginecol. 2013 Apr;65(2):215-21. The role of oral probiotic for bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women. A pilot study
    The oral treatment with VSL#3® is effective in the treatment of VB in pregnant women as a topical treatment with clindamycin. In particular for the resolution of leukorrhea, itching and in particular in the bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella V.[Abstract]
  • REVIEW
  • Bohbot JM1, Lepargneur JP. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2012 Jan;40(1):31-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gyobfe.2011.10.013. Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain
    The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications.[Abstract]

  • .[Abstract]
  • Caprylzuur

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat caprylzuur effectief is bij een candida infectie.

    Candinorm AOV

    Boterzuur

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat boterzuur effectief is bij een candida infectie.

    Abrikozenpitten extract

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat abrikozenpitten extract effectief is bij een candida infectie.

    Calcium

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat calcium effectief is bij een candida infectie.

    Magaan

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat magaan effectief is bij een candida infectie.

    Pau d’arco

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat pau d’arco effectief is bij een candida infectie.

    Jesse van der Velde – Het anti candida boodschappenlijstje

    l-glutamine

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat l-glutamine effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: l glutamine candida infection en l glutamine yeast infection. Er is wel goed onderzoek dat zegt dat het niet werkt

    Colostrum

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoon dat Colostrum effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Colostrum candida infection en Colostrum yeast infection

    Magnesium

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Magnesium effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: magnesium candida infection en magnesium yeast infection

    EPA / DHA

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat EPA / DHA effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: EPA DHA candida infection en EPA DHA yeast infection

    Kokosolie

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Kokosolie effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: coconut oil candida infection en coconut oil yeast infection

    Collodiaal zilver

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Collodiaal zilver effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: colloidal silver candida infection en colloidal silver yeast infection

    Candicure van Candifarma

    Knoflook is de enige werkzame stof in Candicure van Candifarma.

    Pau d’arco

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat xxx effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: pau d’arco candida infection en pau d’arco yeast infection

    Caprylzuur

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat caprylzuur effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: caprylzuur candida infection en caprylzuur yeast infection

    Echinacea

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Echinacea effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Echinacea candida infection en Echinacea yeast infection

    Grapefruit zaad

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat grapefruit zaad effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: grape seed candida infection en grape seed yeast infection

    Candiplex van Venamed

    Natrium caprylaat

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Natrium caprylaat effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: natrium caprylate candida infection en natrium caprylate yeast infection

    Calcium

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Calciumeffectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: calcium candida infection en calcium yeast infection

    ascorbic acid

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat orale inname van ascorbic acid effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: ascorbic acid candida infection en ascorbic acid yeast infection

    Magnesium

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed dat aantoont dat Magnesium effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Magnesium candida infection en Magnesium yeast infection

    Zink

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Zink effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Zinc candida infection en Zinc yeast infection

    Vitamine E

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Vitamine E effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Vitamin E candida infection en Vitamin E yeast infection

    Biotine

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat Biotine effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Biotin candida infection en Biotin yeast infection

    Thymocapryl van Bonusan

    Caprylzuur

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat caprylzuur effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: caprylic acid candida infection en caprylic acid yeast infection

    Tijm

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat tijm effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: Thymus vulgaris candida infection en Thymus vulgaris yeast infection

    xxx

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat xxx effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: xxx candida infection en xxx yeast infection

    xxx

    Er is geen placebo controlled onderzoek te vinden op PubMed da aantoont dat xxx effectief is bij de behandeling van candida. Gebruikte zoekwoorden: xxx candida infection en xxx yeast infection