Wetenschappelijk onderzoek

Het protocol voor de behandeling van astma is op basis van wetenschappelijke publicaties ontwikkeld. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van de National Library of Medicine (PubMed). Daar waar mogelijk werden studies die opgezet zijn volgens het “placebo controlled cross-over” principe gebruikt. Andere vormen die vaak werden gebruik zijn reviews en epidemiologisch onderzoek. Publicaties uit bladen als The Lancet, American Journal of Cardiology, The New England Journal of Medicine hadden de voorkeur

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    National Library of Medicine (PubMed)


    EPA / DHA

    1. Covar R, Gleason M, Macomber B, Stewart L, Szefler P, Engelhardt K, Murphy J, Liu A, Wood S, DeMichele S, Gelfand EW, Szefler SJ. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010 Aug;40(8):1163-74. Impact of a novel nutritional formula on asthma control and biomarkers of allergic airway inflammation in children
      Both NNF and control groups demonstrated improvement in asthma-free days. NNF-treated group had reduced biomarkers of disease activity. Rapid PBMC fatty acid composition changes reflected an anti-inflammatory profile. Dietary supplementation with NNF was safe and well tolerated.[Abstract]
    2. Biltagi MA, Baset AA, Bassiouny M, Kasrawi MA, Attia M. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Apr;98(4):737-42. Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study
      Diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, Zn and vitamin C significantly improved asthma control test, pulmonary function tests and pulmonary inflammatory markers in children with moderately persistent bronchial asthma either singly or in combination.[Abstract]
    3. Mickleborough TD, Rundell KW. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;59(12):1335-46. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
      These findings are provocative and suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation may be a viable treatment modality and/or adjunct therapy in asthma and EIB.[Article]
    4. Lindemann J, David Pampe E, Peterkin JJ, Orozco-Cronin P, Belofsky G, Stull D. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Dec;25(12):2865-75. Clinical study of the effects on asthma-related QOL and asthma management of a medical food in adult asthma patients
      The dietary addition of the medical food EFF1009 to asthma management regimens can improve patient perceived, ARQOL and can also improve asthma management as evidenced by reduced asthma symptoms. An additional study of the medical food, with larger subject population and longer treatment duration, is warranted to confirm these findings.[Abstract]
    5. Schubert R, Kitz R, Beermann C, Rose MA, Lieb A, Sommerer PC, Moskovits J, Alberternst H, Böhles HJ, Schulze J, Zielen S. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;148(4):321-9. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in asthma after low-dose allergen challenge
      ur results provide evidence that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA is able to reduce bronchial inflammation even after low-dose allergen challenge.[Abstract]
    6. Olsen SF, Østerdal ML, Salvig JD, Mortensen LM, Rytter D, Secher NJ, Henriksen TB. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):167-75. Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial
      Under the assumption that intake of olive oil in the dose provided here was inert, our results support that increasing n-3 PUFAs in late pregnancy may carry an important prophylactic potential in relation to offspring asthma.[Article]
    7. Mickleborough TD, Lindley MR, Ionescu AA, Fly AD. Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1):39-49. Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma
      Our data suggest that fish oil supplementation may represent a potentially beneficial nonpharmacologic intervention for asthmatic subjects with EIB.[Article]
    8. Mihrshahi S, Peat JK, Webb K, Oddy W, Marks GB, Mellis CM; CAPS Team. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004 Dec;15(6):517-22. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in plasma on symptoms of asthma at 18 months of age
      Although wheeze at this age may not be a good indicator of asthma in later childhood, it is encouraging that some symptoms have been reduced in children with high omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in plasma.[Abstract]
    9. BJOG. 2011 Jul;118(8):916-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02846.x. Klemens CM, Berman DR, Mozurkewich EL. The effect of perinatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory markers and allergic diseases: a systematic review
      n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy decreases childhood asthma and response to SPT.[Abstract]
    10. Peat JK, Mihrshahi S, Kemp AS, Marks GB, Tovey ER, Webb K, Mellis CM, Leeder SR. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Oct;114(4):807-13. Three-year outcomes of dietary fatty acid modification and house dust mite reduction in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study
      These results suggest that our interventions, designed to be used in simple public health campaigns, may have a role in preventing the development of allergic sensitization and airways disease in early childhood. This offers the prospect of reducing allergic disease in later life. [Abstract]
    11. Mickleborough TD, Murray RL, Ionescu AA, Lindley MR. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Nov 15;168(10):1181-9. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes
      These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties. [Article]
    12. Mickleborough TD, Lindley MR, Ionescu AA, Fly AD.Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1):39-49. Protective effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma
      Our data suggest that fish oil supplementation may represent a potentially beneficial nonpharmacologic intervention for asthmatic subjects with EIB.[Article]
    13. Mickleborough TD, Murray RL, Ionescu AA, Lindley MR Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Nov 15;168(10):1181-9. Fish oil supplementation reduces severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes
      These data suggest that dietary fish oil supplementation has a markedly protective effect in suppressing EIB in elite athletes, and this may be attributed to their antiinflammatory properties.[Article]
    14. Mihrshahi S, Peat JK, Marks GB, Mellis CM, Tovey ER, Webb K, Britton WJ, Leeder SR; Childhood Asthma Prevention Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Jan;111(1):162-8. Eighteen-month outcomes of house dust mite avoidance and dietary fatty acid modification in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS)
      Increasing dietary omega-3 fatty acids might have a beneficial effect on the prevalence of wheeze during the first 18 months of life. Follow-up to age 5 years, when the effect of the interventions on asthma risk will be assessed, is underway.[Abstract]


    1. Gvozdjáková A, Kucharská J, Bartkovjaková M, Gazdíková K, Gazdík FE. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces corticosteroids dosage in patients with bronchial asthma
      A reduction in the dosage of corticosteroids required by the patients following antioxidant supplementation was observed, indicating lower incidence of potential adverse effects of the drugs, decreased oxidative stress.[Abstract]
    2. Gazdik F, Gvozdjakova A, Horvathova M, Weissova S, Kucharska J, Pijak MR, Gazdikova K Bratisl Lek Listy. 2002;103(10):353-6. Levels of coenzyme Q10 in asthmatics
      Our results suggest possible contribution of suboptimal concentrations of CoQ10 on antioxidative dysbalance in As and provide rationale for its supplementation with clinical evaluation.[Abstract]
    3. Gazdík F, Gvozdjáková A, Nádvorníková R, Repická L, Jahnová E, Kucharská J, Piják MR, Gazdíková K. Allergy. 2002 Sep;57(9):811-4. Decreased levels of coenzyme Q(10) in patients with bronchial asthma
      Results of the study suggest a possible contribution of suboptimal concentrations of CoQ10 on antioxidative dysbalance in As and provide a rationale for its supplementation.[Abstract]
    4. Gazdik F, Gvozdjakova A, Horvathova M, Weissova S, Kucharska J, Pijak MR, Gazdikova K. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2002;103(10):353-6. Levels of coenzyme Q10 in asthmatics
      Our results suggest possible contribution of suboptimal concentrations of CoQ10 on antioxidative dysbalance in As and provide rationale for its supplementation with clinical evaluation.[Abstract]
    5. Jaber R. Prim Care. 2002 Jun;29(2):231-61 Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma
      The use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in patients with COPD needs further study.[Abstract]


    1. Neuman I, Nahum H, Ben-Amotz A. Allergy. 2000 Dec;55(12):1184-9. Reduction of exercise-induced asthma oxidative stress by lycopene, a natural antioxidant
      Our results indicate that a daily dose of lycopene exerts a protective effect against EIA in some patients, most probably through an in vivo antioxidative effect.[Article]
    2. Wood LG, Garg ML, Powell H, Gibson PG. Free Radic Res. 2008 Jan;42(1):94-102. Lycopene-rich treatments modify noneosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma: proof of concept
      In conclusion, dietary antioxidant consumption modifies clinical asthma outcomes. Changing dietary antioxidant intake may be contributing to rising asthma prevalence. Lycopene-rich supplements should be further investigated as a therapeutic intervention.[Abstract]
    3. Wood LG, Garg ML, Blake RJ, Garcia-Caraballo S, Gibson PG. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6):448-55. Airway and circulating levels of carotenoids in asthma and healthy controls
      Whole blood, but not plasma or sputum, carotenoid levels are deficient in asthma. Plasma carotenoid levels reflect airway carotenoid levels and when plasma levels are improved using oral supplements this is reflected in the airways.[Article]
    4. Wood LG, Gibson PG. Br J Nutr. 2010 Mar;103(5):735-41. Epub 2009 Oct 29. Reduced circulating antioxidant defences are associated with airway hyper-responsiveness, poor control and severe disease pattern in asthma
      We conclude that asthmatic subjects with AHR, uncontrolled asthma and a severe asthma pattern have impaired antioxidant defences and are thus most susceptible to the damaging effects of oxidative stress. This highlights the potential role for antioxidant supplementation in these subjects.[Abstract]
    5. Riccioni G, Bucciarelli T, Mancini B, Di Ilio C, Della Vecchia R, D’Orazio N. J Asthma. 2007 Jul-Aug;44(6):429-32. Plasma lycopene and antioxidant vitamins in asthma: the PLAVA study
      Dietary supplementation or adequate intake of lycopene and vitamin A rich foods may be beneficial in asthmatic subjects.[Abstract]
    6. Allen S, Britton JR, Leonardi-Bee JA. Thorax. 2009 Jul;64(7):610-9. Epub 2009 Apr 30. Association between antioxidant vitamins and asthma outcome measures: systematic review and meta-analysis
      Relatively low dietary intakes of vitamins A and C are associated with statistically significant increased odds of asthma and wheeze. Vitamin E intake does not appear to be related to asthma status.[Abstract]
    7. Lee CM, Chang JH, Moon DO, Choi YH, Choi IW, Park YM, Kim GY. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Sep 19;374(2):248-52 Lycopene suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma
      These findings provide new insight into the immunopharmacological role of lycopene in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma.[Abstract]



      1. Onur E, Kabaro?lu C, Günay O, Var A, Yilmaz O, Dündar P, Tikiz C, Güvenç Y, Yüksel H. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2011 Mar-Apr;39(2):90-5. The beneficial effects of physical exercise on antioxidant status in asthmatic children
        Structured exercise programme in asthmatic children resulted in better lung function, which may be attributed to its effect on antioxidant status.[Article]
      2. Petlevski R, Zuntar I, Dodig S, Turkalj M, Cepelak I, Vojvodi? J, Sicaja M, Missoni S. Coll Antropol. 2009 Dec;33(4):1251-4. Malonaldehyde and erythrocyte antioxidant status in children with controlled asthma
        Lower GSH-Px activity in children with controlled asthma showed deficient erythrocyte antioxidant defence and evidence of association between oxidative stress and asthma in childhood. Preserved activity of GR and SOD, together with concentration of GSH and MDA, still seems to be crucial in controlling antioxidant/oxidant balance of the disease.[Abstract]
      3. Varshavski? BIa, Trubnikov GV, Galaktipmpva LP, Koreniak NA, Koledeznaia IL, Oberemok AN. Ter Arkh. 2003;75(3):21-4. Oxidant-antioxidant status of patients with bronchial asthma during inhalation and systemic glucocorticoid therapy
        BA patients have a marked imbalance between production of active oxygen forms and activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. This evidences for low adaptive and defense processes leading to the oxidative stress which is one of the leading links in BA pathogenesis. Oral GT reduced extracellular oxidative status, inhibited activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes. Inhalation GT had no negative systemic action on antioxidant enzymes.[Abstract]
      4. Mak JC, Chan-Yeung MM. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006 Jan;12(1):7-11. Reactive oxidant species in asthma
        There is good evidence that antioxidant compounds may have a potential role in the treatment of asthma, especially of asthma exacerbation.[Abstract]
      5. Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramírez-Aguilar M, Téllez-Rojo MM, Moreno-Macías H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, del Río-Navarro BE, Ruiz-Navarro MX, Hatch G, Slade R, Hernández-Avila M. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Sep 1;166(5):703-9. Antioxidant supplementation and lung functions among children with asthma exposed to high levels of air pollutants
        Our results suggest that supplementation with antioxidants might modulate the impact of ozone exposure on the small airways of children with moderate to severe asthma.[Article]


      1. Surette ME, Stull D, Lindemann J. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):559-67. The impact of a medical food containing gammalinolenic and eicosapentaenoic acids on asthma management and the quality of life of adult asthma patients
        The inclusion of the medical food EFF1009 in asthma management regimens can improve patient quality of life and decrease reliance on rescue medication.[Abstract]
      2. Surette ME, Koumenis IL, Edens MB, Tramposch KM, Clayton B, Bowton D, Chilton FH. Clin Ther. 2003 Mar;25(3):972-9. Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis by a novel dietary fatty acid formulation in patients with atopic asthma: a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, prospective trial
        Daily consumption of dietary GLA and EPA in a novel emulsion formulation inhibited leukotriene biosynthesis in this population of patients with atopic asthma and was well tolerated.[Abstract]
      3. Ziboh VA, Naguwa S, Vang K, Wineinger J, Morrissey BM, Watnik M, Gershwin ME. Clin Dev Immunol. 2004 Mar;11(1):13-21. Suppression of leukotriene B4 generation by ex-vivo neutrophils isolated from asthma patients on dietary supplementation with gammalinolenic acid-containing borage oil: possible implication in asthma
        Nonetheless, the study demonstrated dietary fatty acid modulation of endogenous inflammatory mediators without side effects and thus warrant further explorations into the roles of GLA at higher doses, leukotrienes and asthma.[Article]


      1. Gallegos-Solórzano MC, Pérez-Padilla R, Hernández-Zenteno RJ. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Oct;23(5):432-7 Usefulness of inhaled magnesium sulfate in the coadjuvant management of severe asthma crisis in an emergency department
        Adding inhaled MgSO(4) treatment to standard therapy in severe asthma crisis improves FEV(1)%p and SpO(2) post-BD and reduces the rate of ED admissions.[Abstract]
      2. Bessmertny O, DiGregorio RV, Cohen H, Becker E, Looney D, Golden J, Kohl L, Johnson T. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Jun;39(6):585-91. A randomized clinical trial of nebulized magnesium sulfate in addition to albuterol in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbations in adults
        The combination of nebulized MgSO(4) and albuterol provides no benefit in addition to that provided by therapy with albuterol in adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbations. The efficacy of nebulized MgSO(4) in patients with severe asthma exacerbations remains unknown.[Abstract]
      3. Singh AK, Gaur S, Kumar R. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008 Dec;7(4):221-9. A randomized controlled trial of intravenous magnesium sulphate as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute severe asthma
        Thus IV MgSO4 improves pulmonary function and discharge rates, when used as an adjunct to standard therapy in severe acute asthma.Magnesium sulfate as an adjunct to standard therapy in patients with severe exacerbation of asthma could cause improvement in pulmonary function and decrease in hospital admission.[Abstract]
      4. Blitz M, Blitz S, Beasely R, Diner BM, Hughes R, Knopp JA, Rowe BH. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003898. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma
        Nebulised inhaled magnesium sulfate in addition to beta2-agonist in the treatment of an acute asthma exacerbation, appears to have benefits with respect to improved pulmonary function and there is a trend towards benefit in hospital admission. The benefit is significantly greater in more severe asthma exacerbations.[Abstract]
      5. Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):337-44. Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review
        The use of nebulized MgSO(4), particularly in addition to a beta(2)-agonist, in the treatment of an acute asthma exacerbation appears to produce benefits with respect to improved pulmonary function and may reduce the number of hospital admissions.[Article]
      6. Kazaks AG, Uriu-Adams JY, Albertson TE, Shenoy SF, Stern JS. J Asthma. 2010 Feb;47(1):83-92. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on measures of airway resistance and subjective assessment of asthma control and quality of life in men and women with mild to moderate asthma: a randomized placebo controlled trial
        Adults who received oral Mg supplements showed improvement in objective measures of bronchial reactivity to methacholine and PEFR and in subjective measures of asthma control and quality of life.[Abstract]
      7. Bede O, Nagy D, Surányi A, Horváth I, Szlávik M, Gyurkovits K Inflamm Res. 2008 Jun;57(6):279-86. Effects of magnesium supplementation on the glutathione redox system in atopic asthmatic children
        Mg in the given doses exerts antioxidant activity and influences the glutathione redox system.[Abstract]
      8. Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MA, Gontijo LS, Condino-Neto A, Ribeiro JD. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan;61(1):54-60. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial
        Oral magnesium supplementation helped to reduce bronchial reactivity to methacholine, to diminish their allergen-induced skin responses and to provide better symptom control in pediatric patients with moderate persistent asthma treated with inhaled fluticasone.[Article]
      9. Bede O, Surányi A, Pintér K, Szlávik M, Gyurkovits K. Magnes Res. 2003 Dec;16(4):262-70. Urinary magnesium excretion in asthmatic children receiving magnesium supplementation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study
        Long-lasting Mg supplementation is clearly of benefit in mildly to moderately asthmatic children and is recommended as a concomitant drug in stable asthma.[Article]
      10. Skorodin MS, Tenholder MF, Yetter B, Owen KA, Waller RF, Khandelwahl S, Maki K, Rohail T, D’Alfonso N. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Mar 13;155(5):496-500. Magnesium sulfate in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
        Magnesium sulfate, 1.2 g over 20 minutes after beta-agonist administration, is safe and modestly efficacious in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and its bronchodilator effect is greater than that of a beta-agonist given alone and lasts beyond the period of magnesium sulfate administration.[Abstract]
      11. Abreu González J, Hernández García C, Abreu González P, Martín García C, Jiménez A. Arch Bronconeumol. 2006 Aug;42(8):384-7. Effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations requiring hospitalization: a randomized placebo-controlled tria
        Intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate has no bronchodilating effect in patients with COPD exacerbations. It does, however, enhance the bronchodilating effect of inhaled ss2-agonists.[Article]
      12. Intravenous MgSO4 decreased admission rate and improved FEV1 in patients with acute severe asthma but did not cause significant improvement in patients with moderate asthmaChest. 1995 Jun;107(6):1576-81. Intravenous magnesium sulfate as an adjunct in the treatment of acute asthma
        Intravenous MgSO4 decreased admission rate and improved FEV1 in patients with acute severe asthma but did not cause significant improvement in patients with moderate asthma.[Article]
      13. Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA Jr. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001490. Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department
        Magnesium sulfate appears to be safe and beneficial in patients who present with severe acute asthma.[Abstract]
      14. Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA Jr. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Sep;36(3):181-90. Intravenous magnesium sulfate treatment for acute asthma in the emergency department: a systematic review of the literature
        Current evidence does not clearly support routine use of intravenous magnesium sulfate in all patients with acute asthma presenting to the ED. However, magnesium sulfate appears to be safe and beneficial for patients who present with severe acute asthma. Practice guidelines need to be changed to reflect these results.[Abstract]

      Vitamine C

      1. Tecklenburg SL, Mickleborough TD, Fly AD, Bai Y, Stager JM. Respir Med. 2007 Aug;101(8):1770-8. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma
        Ascorbic acid supplementation provides a protective effect against exercise-induced airway narrowing in asthmatic subjects. [Abstract]

      2. We conclude that while vitamin C supplements may have modest corticosteroid sparing effects and hence the potential to reduce exposure to their side effects, magnesium supplements have no effect on the inhaled corticosteroid dose required to maintain asthma control.[Abstract]
      3. Anah CO, Jarike LN, Baig HA. Trop Geogr Med. 1980 Jun;32(2):132-7. High dose ascorbic acid in Nigerian asthmatics
        After 14 weeks, an assessment of the severity and rate of attacks showed that those on ascorbic acid suffered less severe and less frequent attacks of asthma during the study period. Plasma ascorbic acid astimations showed a significant rise in the level in those taking ascorbic acid over those on placebo. (P < 0.01). Cessation of ascorbic acid in the group taking it increased attack rates. It is concluded that high dose ascorbic acid is probably a good prophylaxis in some bronchial asthmatics.[Abstract]
      4. Aderele WI, Ette SI, Oduwole O, Ikpeme SJ. Afr J Med Med Sci. 1985 Sep-Dec;14(3-4):115-20. Plasma vitamin C (ascorbic acid) levels in asthmatic children
        Plasma concentration of ascorbic acid was determined in fifty-one asthmatic children and a group of matched controls. The mean ascorbic acid level of 0.54 mg/100 ml among the asthmatics was significantly lower than a mean of 0.84 mg/100 ml for controls (P less than 0.001). Ascorbic acid level was directly related to the socio-economic class (SC) since asthmatic children from SC I, II and II had significantly higher ascorbic acid levels than those from SC IV and V.[Abstract]
      5. Schachter EN, Schlesinger A. Ann Allergy. 1982 Sep;49(3):146-51. The attenuation of exercise-induced bronchospasm by ascorbic acid
        Pretreatment with ascorbic acid led to a significant attenuation of the bronchospasm seen five minutes after exercise compared to placebo, as measured by FVC (0.23 +/- 0.08 L decrease after ascorbic acid, 0.48 +/- 0.14 L decrease after placebo) and by FEV1 (0.24 +/- 0.06 decrease after ascorbic acid, 0.44 +/- 0.14 decrease after placebo) Mean +/- SE). These results suggest a mild antibronchospastic action of ascorbic acid in subjects with EIB.[Abstract]
      6. Cohen HA, Neuman I, Nahum H. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997 Apr;151(4):367-70.Blocking effect of vitamin C in exercise-induced asthm
        The efficacy of vitamin C in preventing EIA cannot be predicted. However, vitamin C may have a protective effect on airway hyperreactivity in some patients with EIA.[Abstract]

      Petasites hybridus (butterbur)

      1. Miller AL. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Feb;6(1):20-47. The etiologies, pathophysiology, and alternative/complementary treatment of asthma
        Omega-3 fatty acids from fish, the flavonoid quercetin, and botanicals Tylophora asthmatica, Boswellia serrata and Petasites hybridus address the inflammatory component. Physical modalities, including yoga, massage, biofeedback, acupuncture, and chiropractic can also be of help.[Article]
      2. Thomet OA, Simon HU. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2002 Oct;129(2):108-12. Petasins in the treatment of allergic diseases: results of preclinical and clinical studies
        Plant extracts are causing an increased interest in the treatment of many chronic diseases, including asthma and other allergic diseases. Several laboratories characterized petasins (petasin, isopetasin, and neopetasin) isolated from extracts of butterbur (Petasites hybridus) as pharmacologically active components, which inhibit leukotriene synthesis in leukocytes.[Abstract]
      3. Danesch UC. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):54-62. Petasites hybridus (Butterbur root) extract in the treatment of asthma–an open trial
        his study suggests the Petasites hybridus extract Petadolex is an effective and safe therapy for the treatment of asthma.[Article]
      4. Thomet OA, Wiesmann UN, Blaser K, Simon HU. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001 Aug;31(8):1310-20. Differential inhibition of inflammatory effector functions by petasin, isopetasin and neopetasin in human eosinophils
        These data suggest that different petasins may at least partially block different intracellular signalling molecules. To reduce LT synthesis, isopetasin and neopetasin may act at the level of or distal to 5-LO. In contrast, petasin may inhibit inflammatory effector functions in human eosinophils by disrupting signalling events at the level of or proximal to phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta), besides its potential inhibitory activity within mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and LT pathways.[Abstract]
      5. Grandhi S, Donnelly LE, Rogers DF.Expert Rev Respir Med. 2007 Oct;1(2):227-46. Phytoceuticals: the new ‘physic garden’ for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
        Recent interest in herbal remedies has redirected attention towards plants as sources of improved treatments for lung disease. Phytoceuticals from a variety of plants and plant products, including butterbur.[Abstract]


      1. Allam MF, Lucane RA. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2):CD003538. Selenium supplementation for asthma
        There is some indication that selenium supplementation may be a useful adjunct to medication for patients with chronic asthma. This conclusion is limited because of insufficient studies and lack of improvement in the clinical parameters of lung function.[Abstract]
      2. Hasselmark L, Malmgren R, Zetterström O, Unge G. Allergy. 1993 Jan;48(1):30-6. Selenium supplementation in intrinsic asthma
        The accumulated data indicate that asthma is associated with reduced circulatory selenium (Se) status and lowered activity of the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which may have etiological implications, considering the important role of GSH-Px in the cellular elimination of hydroperoxides.[Abstract]

      Nitric oxide

      1. Powell H, Murphy VE, Taylor DR, Hensley MJ, McCaffery K, Giles W, Clifton VL, Gibson PG. Lancet. 2011 Sep 10;378(9795):983-90. Management of asthma in pregnancy guided by measurement of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial
        Asthma exacerbations during pregnancy can be significantly reduced with a validated F(E)NO-based treatment algorithm.[Abstract]


      1. Lau BH, Riesen SK, Truong KP, Lau EW, Rohdewald P, Barreta RA. J Asthma. 2004;41(8):825-32. Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma
        There was also a significant reduction of urinary leukotrienes in the Pycnogenol group. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of mild-to-moderate childhood asthma.[Abstract]

      Ginkgo Biloba (BN52063, BN52021)

      1. Mahmoud F, Abul H, Onadeko B, Khadadah M, Haines D, Morgan G. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;83(3):241-5. In vitro effects of Ginkgolide B on lymphocyte activation in atopic asthma: comparison with cyclosporin
        Since they appear to have differing effects on activated cells, the anti-inflammatory effects of CyA and BN52021 in atopic asthma is potentially additive. The present approach may be useful for preliminary evaluation of novel therapeutic modalities for asthma treatment.[Article]
      2. Li MH, Zhang HL, Yang BY. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 Apr;17(4):216-8. Effects of ginkgo leave concentrated oral liquor in treating asthma
        GLC is an effective drug of anti airway inflammation.[Abstract]
      3. Guinot P, Brambilla C, Duchier J, Braquet P, Bonvoisin B, Cournot A. Prostaglandins. 1987 Nov;34(5):723-31. Effect of BN 52063, a specific PAF-acether antagonist, on bronchial provocation test to allergens in asthmatic patients. A preliminary study
        The findings support the possible role of specific PAF-acether antagonists in the treatment of asthma.[Abstract]
      4. Hsieh KH. Chest. 1991 Apr;99(4):877-82 Effects of PAF antagonist, BN52021, on the PAF-, methacholine-, and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children
        The results showed the following: (1) six of seven asthmatics and one of seven normal subjects gave a positive bronchial provocation with PAF; (2) in asthmatics, prior inhalation of BN52021 could inhibit the bronchoconstriction induced by PAF (6/6) and allergen (3/7), but not by methacholine; and (3) 5 min after inhalation of PAF, there was a marked decrease of peripheral blood eosinophils and neutrophils that could be inhibited by prior inhalation of BN52021 in normal subjects but not in asthmatics. These findings support the idea that PAF may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and PAF antagonist may have a role in the prevention and treatment of this disease.[Article]
      5. Wilkens H, Wilkens JH, Uffmann J, Bövers J, Fröhlich JC, Fabel H. Pneumologie. 1990 Feb;44 Suppl 1:347-8. Effect of the platelet-activating factor antagonist BN 52063 on exertional asthma
        The results show that platelet activation after exercise induced asthma was markedly inhibited by BN 52063, indicating that PAF acts as a mediator in exercise induced asthma.[Abstract]


      1. Mickleborough TD, Gotshall RW. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Aug;10(4):633-42. Dietary salt intake as a potential modifier of airway responsiveness in bronchial asthma
        This review concludes that the data are sufficient to warrant a clinical trial that is properly controlled and randomized to further investigate the influence of dietary salt intake on pulmonary function, airway responsiveness, symptoms, quality of life, and medication requirements in asthma and EIB. [Abstract]
      2. Diet and obstructive lung diseases
      3. Dietary salt reduction or exclusion for allergic asthma
      4. The effect of caffeine on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

      5. .[Abstract]

      6. .[Abstract]