Wetenschappelijk onderzoek over zonnebloemolie (linolzuur, linoleic acid, omega-6)

Wetenschappelijk onderzoek over zonnebloemolie (linolzuur, linoleis acid). Hierbij wordt onder andere gebruik gemaakt van hoog gekwalificeerd recent onderzoek dat wordt gepubliceerd in de National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database.

Zonnebloemolie verhoogt het risico op hart- en vaatziekten

National Library of Medicine (PubMed)

Zijn omega-6 vetzuren eigenlijk wel gezond?

  1. NOS 06-02-2013, Omega-6 mogelijk ongezond
    De helft van de groep werd gevraagd een deel van de verzadigde vetten die ze consumeerden te vervangen door plantaardige onverzadigde vetten met omega-6 en linoolzuur. De andere helft van de groep deed dat niet. Uit de analyse bleek dat de omega-6-groep meer kans liep om te overlijden aan een hart- of vaatziekte dan de controlegroep.[Article]
  2. Ramsden CE1, Zamora D, Leelarthaepin B, Majchrzak-Hong SF, Faurot KR, Suchindran CM, Ringel A, Davis JM, Hibbeln JR BMJ. 2013 Feb 4;346:e8707. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8707. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis
    In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats increased the rates of death from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease. An updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed no evidence of cardiovascular benefit. These findings could have important implications for worldwide dietary advice to substitute omega 6 linoleic acid, or polyunsaturated fats in general, for saturated fats.[Article]
  3. Reactie van het voedingscentrum op dit bericht

  4. Voedingscentrum – Halvarine met linolzuur kan prima op je boterham
    Omega-6-vetzuren in halvarine, zoals linolzuur, kan je gewoon op brood eten. Een laagje halvarine is juist goed voor je. Eén onderzoek is geen onderzoek. [Article]
  5. Ramsden CE1, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak SF, Davis JM. Br J Nutr. 2010 Dec;104(11):1586-600. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510004010. n-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
    For non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)+CHD death, the pooled risk reduction for mixed n-3/n-6 PUFA diets was 22 % compared to an increased risk of 13 % for n-6 specific PUFA diets. Advice to specifically increase n-6 PUFA intake, based on mixed n-3/n-6 RCT data, is unlikely to provide the intended benefits, and may actually increase the risks of CHD and death.[Article]
  6. Sears B1, Ricordi C. J Obes. 2011;2011. pii: 431985. doi: 10.1155/2011/431985. Anti-inflammatory nutrition as a pharmacological approach to treat obesity
    Common vegetable oils such as corn, soy, sunflower, and safflower contain 50%–75% linoleic acid. The usage of these vegetable oils has increased by more than 400% since 1980. Since refined carbohydrates and vegetable oils are now the cheapest source of calories, it is not surprising that the combination of these two dietary trends has increased the production of AA thus leading to an epidemic increase in silent inflammation.[Article]
  7. Linolzuur is het meest gegeten vet in Nederland

  8. Voedingscentrum: Omega-6-vetzuren
    Omega-6-vetzuren zijn meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren die ook bekendstaan als n-6-vetzuren. Het bekendste omega-6-vetzuur is linolzuur. Linolzuur komt veel voor, vooral in plantaardige oliën zoals zonnebloemolie, maïsolie en sojaolie, maar ook in margarine, halvarine en bak- en braadvetten.[Article]
  9. BECEL OMEGA3PLUS Voedingswaarde per 100 gram
    Omega 3 (alfa-linoleenzuur) 3,75g Omega 6 (linolzuur) 16g Omega 3 (alfa-linoleenzuur) 3g EPA en DHA vetzuren (vetzuren uit vis) 750mg.[Article]
  10. Gezondheidsraad – Gezonde voeding: logo’s onder de loep
    Bij de criteria die voor het Ik Kies Bewust logo worden toegepast vormt het bestaande productassortiment het belangrijkste uitgangspunt* en niet – zoals bij de voedingsvoorlichting – het huidige voedingspatroon in Nederland en de gewenste verbeteringen daarin.[Article]
  11. Verzadigd blijkt het risico op hart en vaatziekten niet te verhogen

    Verkeerde voorlichting van het Voedingscentrum

  12. Voedingscentrum Eet minder verzadigd vet
    Onverzadigd vet heeft een positief effect op de gezondheid. Producten met veel verzadigd vet zijn minder gezond. Onverzadigd vet = Oké en Verzadigd vet = Verkeerd.[Article]
  13. Voedingscentrum: Herken het gezonde vet
    Verzadigd vet = Verkeerd Verzadigd vet is verkeerd omdat het de kans op hart- en vaatziekten vergroot.[Article]
  14. de Souza RJ1, Mente A2, Maroleanu A3, Cozma AI4, Ha V5, Kishibe T6, Uleryk E7, Budylowski P8, Schünemann H9, Beyene J10, Anand SS11. BMJ. 2015 Aug 11;351:h3978. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h3978. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
    Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations.[Article]
  15. Chowdhury R, Warnakula S, Kunutsor S, Crowe F, Ward HA, Johnson L, Franco OH, Butterworth AS, Forouhi NG, Thompson SG, Khaw KT, Mozaffarian D, Danesh J, Di Angelantonio E. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Mar 18;160(6):398-406. doi: 10.7326/M13-1788. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.[Article]
  16. Siri-Tarino PW1, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;91(3):535-46. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease
    A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD.[Article]
  17. Omega-6 / omega-3 ratio is heel belangrijk

    Oergenetisch gezien is een optimale verhouding 1 : 1

  18. Eaton SB1, Eaton SB 3rd. Eur J Nutr. 2000 Apr;39(2):67-70. Paleolithic vs. modern diets–selected pathophysiological implications
    Our genome can have changed little since the beginnings of agriculture, so, genetically, humans remain Stone Agers–adapted for a Paleolithic dietary regimen. [Abstract]
  19. Cordain L1, Eaton SB, Sebastian A, Mann N, Lindeberg S, Watkins BA, O’Keefe JH, Brand-Miller J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):341-54. Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century
    There is growing awareness that the profound changes in the environment (eg, in diet and other lifestyle conditions) that began with the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry approximately 10000 y ago occurred too recently on an evolutionary time scale for the human genome to adjust. [Article]
  20. Simopoulos AP1. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 Jun;233(6):674-88. doi: 10.3181/0711-MR-311. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases
    Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. [Abstract]
  21. Simopoulos AP1. Poult Sci. 2000 Jul;79(7):961-70. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
    Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established.[Article]
  22. Simopoulos AP1. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006 Nov;60(9):502-7. Evolutionary aspects of diet, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and genetic variation: nutritional implications for chronic diseases
    A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today’s Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (a lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio), exert suppressive effects.[Abstract]
  23. Chilton FH1, Murphy RC2, Wilson BA3, Sergeant S4, Ainsworth H5, Seeds MC6, Mathias RA7 Nutrients. 2014 May 21;6(5):1993-2022. doi: 10.3390/nu6051993. Diet-gene interactions and PUFA metabolism: a potential contributor to health disparities and human diseases
    There has been a three-fold increase in dietary levels of the omega-6 (n-6) 18 carbon (C18), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), with the addition of cooking oils and processed foods to the MWD.[Article]
  24. Omega-3 remt en omega-6 bevorderd ontsteking

  25. Simopoulos AP1. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:131-4. The omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, genetic variation, and cardiovascular diseas
    A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today’s Western diets, promotes the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids have strong anti-inflammatory effects, whereas omega-6 fatty acids tend to be pro-inflammatory. [Article]
  26. Teng KT1, Chang CY, Chang LF, Nesaretnam K. Nutr J. 2014 Jan 29;13:12. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-12. Modulation of obesity-induced inflammation by dietary fats: mechanisms and clinical evidence
    Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert pro-inflammatory effects. n-3 PUFA in particular, possess anti-inflammatory properties.[Article]
  27. Young VM1, Toborek M, Yang F, McClain CJ, Hennig B. Metabolism. 1998 May;47(5):566-72. Effect of linoleic acid on endothelial cell inflammatory mediators
    To test this hypothesis, endothelial cells were treated with linoleic acid (18:2, n – 6) for 12 hours and/or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) for 4 hours. These data suggest that selected fatty acids such as 18:2 can exert proinflammatory effects and, in addition, may markedly alter TNF-mediated inflammatory events.[Abstract]
  28. Viswanathan S1, Hammock BD, Newman JW, Meerarani P, Toborek M, Hennig B.`J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Dec;22(6):502-10. Involvement of CYP 2C9 in mediating the proinflammatory effects of linoleic acid in vascular endothelial cells
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid are well known dietary lipids that may be atherogenic by activating vascular endothelial cells. Our data show that CYP 2C9 plays a key role in linoleic acid-induced oxidative stress and subsequent proinflammatory events in vascular endothelial cells by possibly causing superoxide generation through uncoupling processes.[Abstract]
  29. Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Kim Y, Spicer MT. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2014 Jun;65(2):139-48. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-65-2014-2541. Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis
    The modern diet, with higher intake of fat has also resulted in a higher ratio of omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), contributing to low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) and thus promoting the development of many chronic diseases, including obesity and osteoporosis.[Abstract]
  30. Duncan BB1, Schmidt MI, Pankow JS, Ballantyne CM, Couper D, Vigo A, Hoogeveen R, Folsom AR, Heiss G Diabetes. 2003 Jul;52(7):1799-805. Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study
    In conclusion, a low-grade inflammation predicts incident type 2 diabetes.[Article]
  31. Linolzuur verhoogt het risico op hart- en vaatziekten

    ATHEROGENIC
  32. Hennig B, Meerarani P, Ramadass P, Watkins BA, Toborek M:’Fatty acid-mediated activation of vascular endothelial cells.’;Metabolism.49(8):1006-13, 2000
    Furthermore, linoleic acid and other omega-6 fatty acids appear to be the most proinflammatory and possibly atherogenic fatty acids.[Abstract]
  33. Dichtl W, Ares MP, Jönson AN, Jovinge S, Pachinger O, Giachelli CM, Hamsten A, Eriksson P, Nilsson J:’Linoleic acid-stimulated vascular adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells depends on nuclear factor-kappaB activation’;Metabolism.51(3):327-33, 2002
    These findings suggest that diets rich in linoleic acid may be proinflammatory and thus atherogenic by activating vascular endothelial cells.[Abstract]
  34. Saraswathi V1, Wu G, Toborek M, Hennig B. J Lipid Res. 2004 May;45(5):794-804. Linoleic acid-induced endothelial activation: role of calcium and peroxynitrite signaling
    Research to date indicates that linoleic acid (LA), the major fatty acid in the American diet, may be atherogenic by activating vascular endothelial cells.[Article]
  35. Hennig B1, Toborek M, McClain CJ. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Apr;20(2 Suppl):97-105. High-energy diets, fatty acids and endothelial cell function: implications for atherosclerosis
    Our studies suggest that omega-6 fatty acids, and especially linoleic acid, cause endothelial cell dysfunction most markedly as well as can potentiate TNF-mediated endothelial cell injury.[Abstract]
  36. Woo Lee Y1, Joo Park H, Hennig B, Toborek M. J Nutr Biochem. 2001 Nov;12(11):648-654. Linoleic acid induces MCP-1 gene expression in human microvascular endothelial cells through an oxidative mechanism
    Linoleic acid is a dietary fatty acid that appears to play an important role in activation of the vascular endothelium under a variety of pathological conditions, including development of atherosclerosis or cancer metastasis.[Abstract]
  37. Turpeinen AM1, Basu S, Mutanen M. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1998 Sep;59(3):229-33. A high linoleic acid diet increases oxidative stress in vivo and affects nitric oxide metabolism in humans
    n conclusion, the high-LA diet increased oxidative stress and affected endothelial function in a way which may in the long-term predispose to endothelial dysfunction.[Abstract]
  38. Toborek M1, Hennig B. Subcell Biochem. 1998;30:415-36. The role of linoleic acid in endothelial cell gene expression. Relationship to atherosclerosis
    The role of linoleic acid in endothelial cell gene expression. Relationship to atherosclerosis
    There is evidence that linoleic acid plays a critical role in gene expression and vascular function as it relates to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our discoveries that linoleic acid can influence significantly the cytokine-mediated inflammatory response may open new fields in dietary intervention of atherosclerosis.[Abstract]
  39. Gezonde vetten

    Geen margarine maar roomboter

  40. Griguol Chulich VI1, León-Camacho M, Vicario Romero IM. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2005 Dec;55(4):367-73. Margarine’s trans-fatty acid composition: modifications during the last decades and new trends
    Trans fatty acids isomers are formed during the hydrogenation process used in the food industry to harden oils. In the last decades there has been a great controversy about the consumption of margarine due to the levels of trans fatty acids they contain.[Abstract]
  41. Wikipedia – Hydrogenering
    Hydrogenering of harden is een chemisch proces waarbij een onverzadigde binding wordt omgezet in een verzadigde binding door additie van waterstofgas. Plantaardige oliën, zoals koolzaadolie, sojaolie, palmolie, olijfolie en zonnebloemolie bevatten vrij veel onverzadigde vetzuren. Daardoor hebben ze een relatief laag smeltpunt; bij kamertemperatuur zijn ze meestal vloeibaar. Door het harden van deze oliesoorten wordt het smeltpunt verhoogd. Dat is een belangrijke stap in de productie van margarine uit plantaardige olie.[Article]
  42. Mozaffarian D1, Clarke R. Mozaffarian D1, Clarke R. Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils
    Reduced consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is desirable to lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In practice, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) that contain both TFAs and other fatty acids are the unit of replacement and could be replaced with diverse alternative fats and oils.[Article]
  43. Bendsen NT1, Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;65(7):773-83. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.34. Consumption of industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
    In conclusion, our analysis suggests that industrial-TFA may be positively related to CHD.[Article]
  44. Kochan Z1, Karbowska J, Babicz-Zieli?ska E. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2010 Dec 27;64:650-8. Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome
    In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.[Abstract]
  45. Olijfolie

    HEART DISEASE
  46. Buckland G1, Travier N, Barricarte A, Ardanaz E, Moreno-Iribas C, Sánchez MJ, Molina-Montes E, Chirlaque MD, Huerta JM, Navarro C, Redondo ML, Amiano P, Dorronsoro M, Larrañaga N, Gonzalez CA. Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 14;108(11):2075-82. doi: 10.1017/S000711451200298X. Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort
    In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events. [Article]
  47. Ruiz-Canela M1, Martínez-González MA. Maturitas. 2011 Mar;68(3):245-50. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2010.12.002. Olive oil in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
    Many mechanistic reasons support that a high consumption of olive oil may provide a protection against myocardial infarction, the hallmark of ischemic heart disease.[Abstract]
  48. Covas MI1, Konstantinidou V, Fitó M. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;54(6):477-82. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181c5e7fd. Olive oil and cardiovascular health
    The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.[Abstract]
  49. Martínez-González MA1, Dominguez LJ2, Delgado-Rodríguez M3. Br J Nutr. 2014 Jul 28;112(2):248-59. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514000713. Olive oil consumption and risk of CHD and/or stroke: a meta-analysis of case-control, cohort and intervention studies
    Available studies support an inverse association of olive oil consumption with stroke (and with stroke and CHD combined), but no significant association with CHD. This finding is in agreement with the recent successful results of the PREDIMED randomised controlled trial.[Article]
  50. Guasch-Ferré M, Hu FB, Martínez-González MA, Fitó M, Bulló M, Estruch R, Ros E, Corella D, Recondo J, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Serra-Majem L, Muñoz MA, Pintó X, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Basora J, Buil-Cosiales P, Sorlí JV, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Martínez JA, Salas-Salvadó BMC Med. 2014 May 13;12:78. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-12-78. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study
    Olive oil consumption, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk.[Article]
  51. Ros E1, Martínez-González MA2, Estruch R3, Salas-Salvadó J4, Fitó M5, Martínez JA6, Corella D7. Adv Nutr. 2014 May 14;5(3):330S-6S. doi: 10.3945/an.113.005389. Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular health: Teachings of the PREDIMED study
    Analyses of intermediate markers of cardiovascular risk demonstrated beneficial effects of the MeDiets on blood pressure, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis, as well as on the expression of proatherogenic genes involved in vascular events and thrombosis.[Article]
  52. Kokosvet

    HEART DISEASE
  53. Sircar S1, Kansra U. J Indian Med Assoc. 1998 Oct;96(10):304-7. Choice of cooking oils–myths and realities
    The newer “heart-friendly” oils like sunflower or safflower oils possess this undesirable PUFA content and there are numerous research data now available to indicate that the sole use or excess intake of these newer vegetable oils are actually detrimental to health and switching to a combination of different types of fats including the traditional cooking fats like ghee, coconut oil and mustard oil would actually reduce the risk of dyslipidaemias, AHD and Type-2 DM.[Abstract]
  54. Babu AS1, Veluswamy SK, Arena R, Guazzi M, Lavie CJ. Postgrad Med. 2014 Nov;126(7):76-83. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2014.11.2835. Virgin coconut oil and its potential cardioprotective effects
    This review highlights the mechanism through which saturated fatty acids contribute to CV disease (CVD), how oils and fats contribute to the risk of CVD, and the existing views on VCO and how its cardioprotective effects may make this a possible dietary intervention in isolation or in combination with exercise to help reduce the burden of CVDs.[Abstract]
  55. Kaunitz H. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1986 Mar-Apr;6(3-4):115-21. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in aging and arteriosclerosis
    The Demographic Yearbook of the United Nations (1978) reported that Sri Lanka has the lowest death rate from ischemic heart disease. Sri Lanka is the only of the countries giving reliable data where coconut oil (containing over 50% medium chain fatty acids) is the main dietary fat.[Abstract]
  56. OBESITY
  57. St-Onge MP1, Jones PJ. J Nutr. 2002 Mar;132(3):329-32. Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity
    From the literature reviewed, we conclude that MCT increase energy expenditure, may result in faster satiety and facilitate weight control when included in the diet as a replacement for fats containing LCT.[Article]
  58. St-Onge MP1, Bourque C, Jones PJ, Ross R, Parsons WE. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Jan;27(1):95-102. Medium- versus long-chain triglycerides for 27 days increases fat oxidation and energy expenditure without resulting in changes in body composition in overweight women
    These results show that long-term consumption of MCT enhances EE and fat oxidation in obese women, when compared to LCT consumption.[Abstract]
  59. Voedingscentrum – Kokos en kokosvet
    Kokos en kokosvet komen van de kokosnoot. Kokosvet bevat het meeste verzadigd vet van alle vet- en oliesoorten. Verzadigd vet staat erom bekend niet goed te zijn voor de gezondheid. Het verhoogt het risico op hart- en vaatziekten. Het is dan ook het advies om kokosproducten alleen bij uitzondering te eten.[Article]
  60. Amarasiri WA1, Dissanayake AS. Ceylon Med J. 2006 Jun;51(2):47-51. Coconut fats
    In the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are ‘bad for health’, particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. [Abstract]
  61. Omega-3 vetzuren

  62. Drs. Apr. Geert Vergote & Lic. Biomed. Wet. Sofie Noppe OMEGA-6/OMEGA-3 VETZUURVERHOUDING Sleutel tot gezondheid en gezond ouder worden
    Gemiddelde omzettingspercentages liggen rond 6% voor de omzetting van ALA naar EPA en 3.8% voor de conversie naar DHA. Bij een hoge omega-6 vetzuurinname dalen deze gemiddelde percentages met 40-50%.[Artikel]
  63. Djoussé L1, Akinkuolie AO, Wu JH, Ding EL, Gaziano JM. Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;31(6):846-53. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.05.010. Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: a meta-analysis
    This meta-analysis is consistent with a lower risk of heart failure with intake of marine omega-3 fatty acids. [Article]
  64. Kotwal S1, Jun M, Sullivan D, Perkovic V, Neal B. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012 Nov;5(6):808-18 Omega 3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis
    ?-3 FA may protect against vascular disease, but the evidence is not clear-cut, and any benefits are almost certainly not as great as previously believed.[Article]
  65. Marik PE1, Varon J. Clin Cardiol. 2009 Jul;32(7):365-72. doi: 10.1002/clc.20604. Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review
    Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids should be considered in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events.[Article]
  66. Djoussé L1, Akinkuolie AO, Wu JH, Ding EL, Gaziano JM. Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;31(6):846-53. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.05.010. Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: a meta-analysis
    This meta-analysis is consistent with a lower risk of heart failure with intake of marine omega-3 fatty acids. These observational findings should be confirmed in a large randomized trial.[Article]
  67. Bucher HC1, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. Am J Med. 2002 Mar;112(4):298-304. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    This meta-analysis suggests that dietary and non-dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces overall mortality, mortality due to myocardial infarction, and sudden death in patients with coronary heart disease.[Abstract]
  68. Mediterrane voeding

  69. Nordmann AJ1, Suter-Zimmermann K, Bucher HC, Shai I, Tuttle KR, Estruch R, Briel M. Am J Med. 2011 Sep;124(9):841-51.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.04.024. Meta-analysis comparing Mediterranean to low-fat diets for modification of cardiovascular risk factors
    Mediterranean diets appear to be more effective than low-fat diets in inducing clinically relevant long-term changes in cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers.[Article]
  70. Schwingshackl L1, Hoffmann G2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Sep;24(9):929-39. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.03.003. Mediterranean dietary pattern, inflammation and endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention trials
    The results of the present meta-analysis provide evidence that an MD decreases inflammation and improves endothelial function.[Abstract]
  71. Martínez-González MA, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R, Corella D, Fitó M, Ros E; PREDIMED INVESTIGATORS Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jul-Aug;58(1):50-60. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2015.04.003. Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: Insights From the PREDIMED Study
    Thus, the PREDIMED trial provided strong evidence that a vegetable-based MeDiet rich in unsaturated fat and polyphenols can be a sustainable and ideal model for CVD prevention.[Abstract]
  72. Esposito K1, Marfella R, Ciotola M, Di Palo C, Giugliano F, Giugliano G, D’Armiento M, D’Andrea F, Giugliano D JAMA. 2004 Sep 22;292(12):1440-6. Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial
    A Mediterranean-style diet might be effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular risk.[Article]
  73. Koloverou E1, Esposito K2, Giugliano D2, Panagiotakos D3. Metabolism. 2014 Jul;63(7):903-11. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.04.010. The effect of Mediterranean diet on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies and 136,846 participants
    Mediterranean diet could, if appropriately adjusted to reflect local food availability and individual’s needs, constitute a beneficial nutritional choice for the primary prevention of diabetes.[Abstract]
  74. Kastorini CM1, Milionis HJ, Esposito K, Giugliano D, Goudevenos JA, Panagiotakos DB. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Mar 15;57(11):1299-313. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.073. The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals
    These results are of considerable public health importance, because this dietary pattern can be easily adopted by all population groups and various cultures and cost-effectively serve for primary and secondary prevention of the MS and its individual components.[Article]
  75. Universiteit van Wageningen – Gezonde voeding en leefstijl: ook op hoge leeftijd minder kans op sterfte
    Ouderen die zgn. Mediterrane voeding gebruiken, leven gemiddeld langer dan generatiegenoten die een ‘gewoon’ voedingspatroon hebben. Mediterrane voeding is rijk aan groenten, fruit, granen, peulvruchten, vis en olijfolie en bevat weinig vlees en zuivelproducten.[Article]
  76. Paleontische voeding

  77. Jönsson T1, Granfeldt Y, Ahrén B, Branell UC, Pålsson G, Hansson A, Söderström M, Lindeberg S. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009 Jul 16;8:35. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-35. Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study
    Over a 3-month study period, a Paleolithic diet improved glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors compared to a Diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes.[Article]
  78. Manheimer EW1, van Zuuren EJ2, Fedorowicz Z3, Pijl H4. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):922-32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.113613. Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis
    The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater short-term improvements in metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets.[Article]
  79. NOS WHO: bewerkt vlees kan darmkanker veroorzaken
    Bewerkt vlees zoals hamburgers, worstjes, ham, bacon en spek kan kanker veroorzaken. Dat zegt de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie in een vanochtend verschenen rapport. Volgens de WHO verhoogt het dagelijks eten van 50 gram bewerkt vlees de kans op het ontwikkelen van darmkanker met 18 procent ten opzichte van mensen die niet zo veel bewerkt vlees eten. [Article]
  80. Bouvard V1, Loomis D1, Guyton KZ1, Grosse Y1, Ghissassi FE1, Benbrahim-Tallaa L1, Guha N1, Mattock H1, Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1599-600. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00444-1. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat
    A meta-analysis of colorectal cancer in ten cohort studies reported a statistically signifi cant dose–response relationship, with a 17% increased risk (95% CI 1·05–1·31) per 100 g per day of red meat and an 18% increase (95% CI 1·10–1·28) per 50 g per day of processed meat.[Article]

  81. .[Abstract]

Nog niet gebruikte artikelen: referenties lijnzaadolie

  1. Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer
    Dietary flaxseed has the potential to reduce tumor growth in patients with breast cancer.
  2. The inhibitory effect of flaxseed on the growth and metastasisof estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer xenograftsis attributed to both its lignan and oil components
    In conclusion, FS reduced the growth and metastasis of established ER- human breast cancer in part due to its lignan and FO components, and not to lipid peroxidation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  3. Alpha-Linolenic Acid, from the Prostate Forum February 2000
    Second, clinical studies that are available suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may actually be dangerous for prostate cancer patients.
  4. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer.
    Increased dietary intakes of ALA may increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer. In contrast, EPA and DHA intakes may reduce the risk of total and advanced prostate cancer.
  5. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis
    This meta-analysis shows that consumption of ALA might reduce heart disease mortality. However, the association between high intake of ALA and prostate cancer is of concern and warrants further study.
  6. Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay
    Including this report, five of six studies that have examined the relationship between alpha-linolenic acid and prostate cancer yielded a positive association, which was significant in four studies. Thus, there appears to be evidence of a role of alpha-linolenic acid in prostate carcinogenesis